With all the ups and downs in our lives and making our lives hell, COVID 19  has gifted OXFORD DICTIONARY some new words. You will find here some words resembling the old words and at the same time, you will notice some words never used before. After the meanings of the words, I have added here one quiz also so that you could learn the meanings of the words more properly.

Following are the words that have been added in the Oxford Dictionary-


       – a cocktail typically drunk during  the self-isolation

         ex – Payal was advised to keep on     

               having QUARANTINI  to recover 

               herself soon from this 

              killing disease.



       – someone who ignores health

         advice about COVID 19

        ex-  Arun never wears a mask 

         while leaving his home. He is

         really a COVIDIOT.


  1. ZUMP 

    – be dumped via zoom during 

      quarantine/ be careless while 

       having  online classes.

     ex- Most of the students used 

     ZUMP during online classes.



    – a tendency of doing over online 

      shopping during lockdown

      ex. The virus of ‘being spendemic’ 

      entered into our homes more fastly than         the virus of COVID 19. 



      -the practice of having a safe 

       distance in order to prevent to 

       spread of the disease


      ex- Dear students, try to be 

      social bubbles in your classrooms 

      in order to prevent yourselves 

     from the attack of a new virus.


A cocktail typically drunk during the self-isolation

Correct! Wrong!

A tendency of doing over online shopping during lockdown

Correct! Wrong!

The practice of having a safe distance in order to prevent to spread the disease

Correct! Wrong!

Be dumped via zoom during quarantine/ be careless while having online classes. Most of the students used to ZUMP during online classes.

Correct! Wrong!

Someone who ignores health advice about COVID 19

Correct! Wrong!


Share your Results:

Which word/words did you like the most,please mention in the comment box below-


REPORTED SPEECH RULES: NARRATION: INDIRECT SPEECH (Part1): Introduction: What is a Reported Speech / Narration?


Reported Speech is a formation of a sentence that we tell to someone, i.e.to the second person.

Thus based on a conversation, the words of the speaker can be formed in two ways:-




Thus two kinds of speeches came into existence

Direct Speech:

The teacher said to the monitor, “ I will be on a leave tomorrow. So collect the notebooks from all the students today only for correction.”

(When the speaker is directly saying something to the listener or when we are repeating the words of the speaker to the third person, is called Direct Speech.)

Indirect Speech:

The teacher told the monitor that she would be on a leave the next day and ordered her to collect all the notebooks from the students that day only.

( Thus when the listener is repeating the words of the speaker to the third person in roundabout a manner ,is called Indirect Speech. )

Parts of Direct Speech:-

Now comes the formation of a Direct Speech-

 There are two parts of a Direct Speech: –

  • Reporting Verb
  • Reported Speech

Ankit said to Ankita , “ Ridhima reads very well.”

(Reporting Verb)     (Reported Speech )

The part or clause that comes outside of the inverted commas ,is called Reporting Verb. The part that is locked inside the inverted commas, is called Reported Speech.


The position of the Reporting verb & Reported Speech can be anywhere in the sentence :-

eg.   Ankit said to Ankita , “ Ridhima is a very nice girl.”

“Ridhima” said Ankit to Ankita, “ is a very nice girl.”

“ Ridhima is a very nice girl.” Ankit said to Ankita .

All the lines in green are Reporting verbs. That makes clear that it is not mandatory to have a reporting verb at the beginning of the sentence. Its position can be shifted according to the style of writing.

How to recognize a Direct and an Indirect Sentence :-

How to Recognize a Direct Speech:-

  • The reported sentence is locked in the inverted commas.
    • Antima said , “Do you know  Anuj?”
  • After Reporting Verb, we put a comma. 
    • Antima said , “Do you know  Anuj?”
  • The first letter of reported speech that is locked inside the inverted commas ,is  written in  capital letters.
    • Antima said , “Do you know  Anuj?”
How to Recognize an Indirect Speech:-
  • The reported sentence is unlocked from the inverted commas.
    • Ritika said that she was her best friend.
  • Commas are replaced with the conjunctions i.e. ( that/if /whether )according to the expression of the sentences. 
    • Ritika said that she was her best friend.

Common  Rules of changing a Direct Speech into Indirect Speech:-

  • Inverted commas are removed in Reported speech
  • Commas are replaced with conjunctions i.e. ( that/if /whether ) as per the expression of the sentences.
  • Never change the Tense of a Reporting Verb. Only the Tense of Reported Speech is changed if Reported Verb is Past Tense.


Direct : Namita says to Nisha , “Mishti likes to play chess”

Indirect: Namita tells Nisha that Mishti likes to play chess. •

Direct: Danish said to Salman , “ I Visited Delhi last Monday”

Indirect : Danish told Salman that he had visited Delhi the previous Monday.

General rules of changing a Direct Speech into Indirect Speech:-

I. Common Changes – applied in the complete Indirect Speech

II . Expression Changes – varies according to the different expressions

i.e. Kinds of sentences

They are again sub divided in the following parts-

I . Common Changes – applied in the complete Indirect Speech

a.Change of Tense

b. Change of Pronoun

c. Change of Time and place •

Read and understand the following sentences and the chart before going further in the detailed study of Change of Tense , Pronoun or Time and Space-

How to change Say / said of Reporting Verb according to different kinds

of sentences :-

Sentence Reporting Verb     Reported Speech Connector
Assertive   Say 
Say to
Says to
Said to
said to
( reports / reported) 
Interrogative Say /Says / Say to/ Says to / Said/Said to   Told      asked/ enquired of     If / whether
Imperative Request   Order     Advice    requested ordered /commanded advised       Connector {to}  
  Proposal   Making proposal  proposed to / suggested to   
                   Exclamatory Sorrow   Happiness Surprise Exclaimed with sorrow   Exclaimed with joy/happiness   Exclaimed with surprise   that  
 Optative Wish Curse wished/blessed cursed     that (In some cases without connectors)



Ankita says, ” Harsh is my brother.

Shikha says to Nisha, ” Ridhima studies with me. “

Akhil said , “ I can not come to meet you here tomorrow.”

Namita said to me , ” Anubhav has been working hard since last night.”

Nitin said me , ” Will you also go to Goa?”

Rishika said to me , ” Do you have my book?”

Dinesh said to Mayank, ” Return me my bike.”

Simran said to me , ” Please, help me in completing my project.”

Siya said me , ” Have a deep sleep for 6 hours a day.

Babita said to me,” Let’s play tennis.”

Akriti said to Divyani , ” Let’s participate in the quiz. “

Gargi said, “Hurrah ! I have won a trophy.”

Shivani said to me ,” Alas! I have met with an accident.”

Aditi said , ” What a beautiful flower it is !”

Garvit said, “May God bless you !”

Vikram said to his friends , ” May you go to hell !”


Ankita tells that Harsh is her brother.

Akhil told Nitesh that he could not go to meet him there the next day.

Shikha tells Nisha that Ridhima studies with her.

Akhil said that he could not meet him there the previous day.

Namita told me that Anubhav had been working hard since last night.

Nitin asked me if I would also go to Goa.

Rishika enquired of me if I had her book.

Dinesh ordered Mayank to return his bike.

Simran requested me to help her in competing her project.

Siya adviced me to have a deep sleep for 6 hours a day.

Babita proposed to me that we should play tennis.

Akriti suggested to Divyani that we must participate in the quiz.

Gargi exclaimed with joy that she had won a trophy.

Shivani exclaimed me with sorrow that she had met with an accident.

Aditi exclaimed with surprise that it was a beautiful flower.

Garvit wished that God might bless me.

Vikram cursed his friend that he might go to hell.


Words before you start !

Welcome Learners !


I’m Meena Bilandani, M.A. (English)+Bachelor of Education, pursuing my passion of teaching for more than 15 years. I spend most of my time with my students and with my never-ending learning over here world’s most

spiritual land INDIA..


Let’s begin a new journey!

Grammar learning is not an easy task. It is a tough row to hoe. A lot of practice with constant learning then assimilating within is really a constant journey in itself that needs immense patience to carry on. Speaking and writing any language within a proper framing in a restricted structure, is really an art.

“ Grammar in spoken English is not needed ”, is only a prevalent myth. Yes, for beginners just to encourage them we say not to stick with a heavy set of burden and keep on speaking, especially when the speaker belongs to a regional medium or residing completely in a native environment. But they need not learn grammar, is completely be fooling themselves.

It is exactly like shooting an arrow without a bow. Yes, you can hit an arrow perfectly sometimes, but for a perfect pace ,you need a bow. Yes, of course, if you are growing up under a completely English environment or studying in a school where the native language is strictly restricted to speak,. They learn naturally the things and subconsciously, they use to speak a sentence in a correct framing naturally as they have been provided an environment under which they understand grammatically the sentence is correct .

With my own experience of teaching almost all kinds of board students, I have found, students from completely native background, most of the times pass through the verb mistakes which leave often very awkward situation if they have not studied tenses properly. While students of completely English Medium background pass through part of speech errors which can be actually, not always but often negligible.

So, speaking English in an incorrect framing of tense leaves more awkward situation than misuses of other parts of speeches.

Yes, students from English Medium often argue that they have learned English without learning Tenses, they are actually true but they are unaware of the fact that they have learnt tenses automatically with a practical environment still they are not much confident with their grammar which may lead them in problem in future competitive examinations.
And students from native background sometimes try to give examples of such students without understanding the fact that they have got a practical environment.

So as far as I could understand with my own lifelong experience, they can learn English at the first step with the translation method only, then gradually they can acquire constant understanding by continuous writing and having a practical approach. So native speakers, please don’t leave excuses, for learning English there is no need of learning Tense.

Yes, at the beginning level, you must not hesitate, you must try to speak but that doesn’t mean you need not learn and understand grammar. If you are learning grammar with learning Spoken English, it’s all like honey on your sugar cube. You must go parallel if you wish to enhance your writing skill also. But all four skills , whether it’s reading or writing,speaking or listening , everything is needed for comprehending any language.

So for such kinds of learners . ultimately, I am presenting here my Grammar lessons with videos and notes accompanied with exercises. I am presenting here my life long learning of Grammar which could be very helpful for my students in learning the English Language not only in enhancing speaking skills but writing skills as well.

Hope you’ll like all the lessons prepared by me by my hard efforts, and try to leave your precious suggestions.

Thank You !

Happy Learning !


Topics to be covered:-

  • The complete explanation of each Grammar topic
  • Video Lectures
  • Exercises for practice after each topic
  • Quizzes





Quantifiers are the types of determiners used before a noun to show the quantity of any person, place or thing.

Quantifiers are studied under two parts:-

  1. As Indefinite Adjectives
  2. As Other Adjectives

Quantifiers are divided into 3 groups:-

  1. Neutral
  2. Large Quantity
  3. Small Quantity
  1. Neutral: All the things or persons whose quantity is small and large both are shown with the Large Quantity Quantifiers.
  2. Large: All the things or persons whose quantity is very large,  are shown with Large Quantity Quantifiers.
  1. Small: All the things or persons whose quantity is very small, are shown with Large Quantity Quantifiers.

According to their usage, they are again divided into 3 parts:


  1. Negative
  2. Interrogative

You can understand it thoroughly by the following chart

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How Successful People Spend the First Hour of the Day (7 Best Morning Routines)



Possessive Adjective

Possessives – the word has been derived from the word POSSESSIONS meaning of which is TO OWE SOMETHING.

Thus “The person or thing that has right on anyone or anything is called Possessive.”

i.e. Possessives are the words that show whom the thing or person belongs to

Possessive Adjective/ Determiners

“The words used before the nouns that show the ownership on something/someone are called Possessive Adjective.”

  • It is MY pen.

       Means- This pen belongs to me.

  • is it YOUR water bottle ?

   Means-  ( Does this bottle belong to you?)

  • Where are THEIR notebooks?

      ( Where are the books that belong to them?

The basic feature of Possessive

  1. It is used in place of a noun.

 e.g. Whose pen is this?

      This is Ankit’s pen.

      Suppose Ankit is standing in front of you. 

      You will say by pointing out Ankit that ” It is his pen.” 

      so here the word HIS has been replaced with 

      the noun-Ankit.

2. The Possessive Adjective is always used before the noun.

3. It informs us whom the things belong to.

4. It can be placed as a complement of the verb or as a Subjective case.

e.g. It is my purse. (Complement of a verb)

Is- verb

my – complement  

     (My) purse is on the table. (the subject of a verb)

is- Verb

My Purse-  subject 

A Possessive adjective can be divided into Singular and Plural in the following way- 


HIs- for a boy

Her- for a girl

Its- non-living/ideas

My- I Person

Your – Singular / Plural- II Person

Our- Plural- I Person

Their- III Person

‘ Your’  is used as a Singular and Plural also

Demonstrative: What is a Demonstrative Determiner? Demonstrative Determiners with exercises: Use of THIS THAT THESE THOSE


Demonstrative is a word that has been derived from the Latin word DEMONSTRARE that means to ‘show something clearly.’

Thus we can say:-


” Demonstrative are the words that point out the ones referred to.”

There are four kinds of Demonstrative-

  • This
  • That
  • These
  • Those

THIS points out the things, persons or
ideas that are very close to us.

Example- This marker is mine.
(Means – The marker is very close to the person who is pointing it out.)
This book is not yours.
(Means the book  is very close to the

 person who is pointing out.)
This idea is better than that one.
( This idea – the idea that is going on in the mind  right now.)
Were you asking about this boy?
(Means the boy is very close to the speaker.)

In precise, we can notice that we are talking about the things
or ideas that are very close to us.


That talks about the things, persons, or ideas that are very far from us.

That book is not mine.
(Means- The book is very far from the person who is pointing it out.)

That idea didn’t really work.
(Means- The idea is in the distant memory of the speaker)
My bag is better than that of yours.
(Means- The bag is very far from the person who is pointing it out.)
Your book is heavier than that of mine
(Means- The book is far from the speaker)

So we can simply say that the person, things, or ideas
that have been mentioned in the above sentences
are either far from the speaker or in his distant memories.


Plural of This

‘These’ actually  talk s about many persons, things, or ideas that
are very close to us.

These grapes are very sour. I can’t eat them.
Where are you these days?
Can you suggest to me some more plans than these?


Plural of That

That talks about many things,  persons,  things or ideas that area a 
little or very far from the speaker.


Those clocks never give the correct time.
These plants are bigger than those.
Those ideas just really didn’t work.

So these are some usage of demonstratives.




 ‘ A Determiner is a word  that  identifies  a noun in some  or another way.’

To precise – It tells something about a Noun or describes a Noun.


  • It is your pen.

     Pen – Noun

     My – Determiner

   ( ‘my’  is giving  information  about 

    a Noun ( Pen)

  • There are some books in the library.
    Books – Noun
    Some- Determiner

         ‘some’ is telling something about

         the books ( Noun) in the library.


Kinds of Determiners

There are total 8 kinds of Determiners

  1. Demonstrative
  2. Possessive
  3. Distributive
  4. Quantifiers
  5. Interrogatives
  6. Ordinals
  7. Cardinals
  8. Articles



The Propsal (Extract)

1. Who is the speaker of the above extract ?

Correct! Wrong!

2. Who is the listener _____

Correct! Wrong!

3. The real purpose of the visitor is to______

Correct! Wrong!

4. The listener thinks that the visitor has come with a request of asking____

Correct! Wrong!

The title ‘ The Proposal ‘ used for the play ,has been used in a sense of-

Correct! Wrong!




Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions follow:- 


Sliding through long grass

Near the water hole

Where plump dear pass.

1. Who is being talked about here?

Correct! Wrong!

2. Where is the tiger right now ?

Correct! Wrong!

3. The rhyming scheme of the above passage is ____

Correct! Wrong!

4. Tell the name of the poet of the above extract-

Correct! Wrong!

5. Read the following conversation of four persons carefully:-


IST PERSON: The tiger must feel the gratitude to the zoo owner  and caretakers that they have provided all the facilities to him in the zoo.

2nd PERSON: But the natural growth and happiness of any species is  possible only under

                         his natural habitat. 

3RD PERSON:But here in the zoo , he doesn’t have to labour hard even for his food.

4TH PERSON: Excuse me, don’t you know that a tiger likes to eat only fresh food by hunting .

Now pick out the option that classifies fact (f) and opinion ( o) about the tiger Given by the above persons:- F- FACT, O- OPINION

Please select 2 correct answers

Correct! Wrong!




Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions follow:- 


“ Of the money that I asked for, only seventy pesos reached me. Send the rest since I need it very much But don’t send it to me through the mail because the post office employees are a bunch of crooks.”

1. The name of the author of the above extract is-

Correct! Wrong!

2. The speaker is writing a letter to –

Correct! Wrong!

3. ’Bunch of crooks’ means a _____

Correct! Wrong!

4. The story ultimately talks about ____

Correct! Wrong!

5. Read the following conversation of four persons carefully:-


1ST PERSON: Lencho must not blame the employees. How can he be sure that

   the money has been stolen by the post office employees?

2nd PERSON: But the money was really less than he asked for.

3rd PERSON: Because the Post Master could not collect money as much as 

    Lencho wished for.

4TH PERSON: Yes, and Lencho must be ultimately happy with whatever amount he Got.

Now pick out the option that classifies fact (f) and opinion ( o) of the F- FACT O- OPINION

Correct! Wrong!

 Extract 2

“All through the night, Lencho thought only of his one hope:

 the help of God, Whose eyes as he had been instructed ,see

everything ,even what is deep in one’s conscience.”


The _______ of Lencho’s crop had taken away his sleep.




2. Lencho looks to God for _______.




3. Who comes to Lencho’s rescue?



Post Master

4. The word ‘instructed’ WILL NOT  be similiar to ________




5. The basic character trait of Lencho as revealed in this etract is:-





  1. spoilage
  2. money
  3. Post Master
  4. misled
  5. Simplicity




Has given my heart
A change of mood
And saved some part
Of a day I had rued


The last two lines tell us the fact that the mood of the poet was____before some time.

Correct! Wrong!

2. What CAN NOT be the meaning of ‘rued’ ?

Correct! Wrong!

What had been saved from ruining?

Correct! Wrong!

The rhyme Scheme in the given stanza is ____

Correct! Wrong!

The poem shows a contrast between two different _____

Correct! Wrong!

What is the message the poet DOES NOT likely to convey through this poem ______

Correct! Wrong!

1- 3= *Keep Trying ! Better Luck Next Time* 3-4= *Good ! Just Give a Little More Efforts* 5-6= Well Done ! Keep Glowing ! Keep Blooming !

Share your Results:



The way a crow

Shook down on me

The dust of snow


1. Name the Poet of the above extract___

 a . Robert FrosT

 b.  Carolyn Wells

 c. Leslie Norris 

 d. John Berryman

2. ‘Dust of Snow’ stands for ______

a. the dust-laden snow

b. the balls of hail

c. soft particles of snow

d.  snowstorm

3. ‘Me’ im the extract is____

a. The poet’s father

b. The poet’s mother

c. The poet’s friend

d. The poet himself

4. Who / What shook down the dust of snow on the poet ?

a. The wind

b. The Hemlock tree

c. A Crow

d. The poet himself

e. The lines describe a ________ landscape.

a. Summer

b. Winter

c. Spring

d. Autumn


  1. a. Robert Fost
  2. c.. soft particles of snow
  3. d. The poet himself

  4. c. A crow

  5. b. Winter

If you practiced the second extract, please leave a comment below…

Thank You

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