With all the ups and downs in our lives and making our lives hell, COVID 19 has gifted OXFORD DICTIONARY some new words. You will find here some words resembling the old words and at the same time, you will notice some words never used before. After the meanings of the words, I have added here one quiz also so that you could learn the meanings of the words more properly.
Following are the words that have been added in the Oxford Dictionary-
– a cocktail typically drunk during the self-isolation
ex – Payal was advised to keep on
having QUARANTINI to recover
herself soon from this
– someone who ignores health
advice about COVID 19
ex- Arun never wears a mask
while leaving his home. He is
really a COVIDIOT.
– be dumped via zoom during
quarantine/ be careless while
having online classes.
ex- Most of the students used
ZUMP during online classes.
– a tendency of doing over online
shopping during lockdown
ex. The virus of ‘being spendemic’
entered into our homes more fastly than the virus of COVID 19.
-the practice of having a safe
distance in order to prevent to
spread of the disease
ex- Dear students, try to be
social bubbles in your classrooms
in order to prevent yourselves
from the attack of a new virus.
QUIZ : CHECK HOW MUCH YOU HAVE LEARNT
A cocktail typically drunk during the self-isolation
A tendency of doing over online shopping during lockdown
The practice of having a safe distance in order to prevent to spread the disease
Be dumped via zoom during quarantine/ be careless while having online classes.
Most of the students used to ZUMP during online classes.
Someone who ignores health advice about COVID 19
COVID INSPIRED WORDS
Share your Results:
Which word/words did you like the most,please mention in the comment box below-
Reported Speech is a formation of a sentence that we tell to someone, i.e.to the second person.
Thus based on a conversation, the words of the speaker can be formed in two ways:-
Thus two kinds of speeches came into existence
The teacher said to the monitor, “ I will be on a leave tomorrow. So collect the notebooks from all the students today only for correction.”
(When the speaker is directly saying something to the listener or when we are repeating the words of the speaker to the third person, is called Direct Speech.)
The teacher told the monitor that she would be on a leave the next day and ordered her to collect all the notebooks from the students that day only.
( Thus when the listener is repeating the words of the speaker to the third person in roundabout a manner ,is called Indirect Speech. )
Parts of Direct Speech:-
Now comes the formation of a Direct Speech-
There are two parts of a Direct Speech: –
Ankit said to Ankita , “ Ridhima reads very well.”
(Reporting Verb)(Reported Speech )
The part or clause that comes outside of the inverted commas ,is called Reporting Verb. The part that is locked inside the inverted commas, is called Reported Speech.
The position of the Reporting verb & Reported Speech can be anywhere in the sentence :-
eg. Ankit said to Ankita , “ Ridhima is a very nice girl.”
“Ridhima” said Ankit to Ankita, “ is a very nice girl.”
“ Ridhima is a very nice girl.” Ankit said to Ankita .
All the lines in green are Reporting verbs. That makes clear that it is not mandatory to have a reporting verb at the beginning of the sentence. Its position can be shifted according to the style of writing.
How to recognize a Direct and an Indirect Sentence :-
How to Recognize a Direct Speech:-
The reported sentence is locked in the inverted commas.
Antima said , “Do you know Anuj?”
After Reporting Verb, we put a comma.
Antima said , “Do you know Anuj?”
The first letter of reported speech that is locked inside the inverted commas ,is written in capital letters.
Antima said , “Do you know Anuj?”
How to Recognize an Indirect Speech:-
The reported sentence is unlocked from the inverted commas.
Ritika said that she was her best friend.
Commas are replaced with the conjunctions i.e. ( that/if /whether )according to the expression of the sentences.
Ritika said that she was her best friend.
Common Rules of changing a Direct Speech into Indirect Speech:-
Inverted commas are removed in Reported speech
Commas are replaced with conjunctions i.e. ( that/if /whether ) as per the expression of the sentences.
Never change the Tense of a Reporting Verb. Only the Tense of Reported Speech is changed if Reported Verb is Past Tense.
Direct : Namita says to Nisha , “Mishti likes to play chess”
Indirect: Namita tells Nisha that Mishti likes to play chess. •
Direct: Danish said to Salman , “ I Visited Delhi last Monday”
Indirect : Danish told Salman that he had visited Delhi the previous Monday.
General rules of changing a Direct Speech into Indirect Speech:-
I. Common Changes – applied in the complete Indirect Speech
II . Expression Changes – varies according to the different expressions
i.e. Kinds of sentences
They are again sub divided in the following parts-
I . Common Changes – applied in the complete Indirect Speech
a.Change of Tense
b. Change of Pronoun
c. Change of Time and place •
Read and understand the following sentences and the chart before going further in the detailed study of Change of Tense , Pronoun or Time and Space-
How to change Say / said of Reporting Verb according to different kinds
of sentences :-
Say Says Say to Says to Said Said to Told
say says tell tells said to told ( reports / reported)
Say /Says / Say to/ Says to / Said/Said to Told
asked/ enquired of
If / whether
Request Order Advice
requested ordered /commanded advised
proposed to / suggested to
Sorrow Happiness Surprise
Exclaimed with sorrow Exclaimed with joy/happiness Exclaimed with surprise
that (In some cases without connectors)
HOW TO CHANGE SAY /SAID
Ankita says, ” Harsh is my brother.
Shikha says to Nisha, ” Ridhima studies with me. “
Akhil said , “ I can not come to meet you here tomorrow.”
Namita said to me , ” Anubhav has been working hard since last night.”
Nitin said me , ” Will you also go to Goa?”
Rishika said to me , ” Do you have my book?”
Dinesh said to Mayank, ” Return me my bike.”
Simran said to me , ” Please, help me in completing my project.”
Siya said me , ” Have a deep sleep for 6 hours a day.
Babita said to me,” Let’s play tennis.”
Akriti said to Divyani , ” Let’s participate in the quiz. “
Gargi said, “Hurrah ! I have won a trophy.”
Shivani said to me ,” Alas! I have met with an accident.”
Aditi said , ” What a beautiful flower it is !”
Garvit said, “May God bless you !”
Vikram said to his friends , ” May you go to hell !”
Ankita tells that Harsh is her brother.
Akhil told Nitesh that he could not go to meet him there the next day.
Shikha tells Nisha that Ridhima studies with her.
Akhil said that he could not meet him there the previous day.
Namita told me that Anubhav had been working hard since last night.
Nitin asked me if I would also go to Goa.
Rishika enquired of me if I had her book.
Dinesh ordered Mayank to return his bike.
Simran requested me to help her in competing her project.
Siya adviced me to have a deep sleep for 6 hours a day.
Babita proposed to me that we should play tennis.
Akriti suggested to Divyani that we must participate in the quiz.
Gargi exclaimed with joy that she had won a trophy.
Shivani exclaimed me with sorrow that she had met with an accident.
Aditi exclaimed with surprise that it was a beautiful flower.
Garvit wished that God might bless me.
Vikram cursed his friend that he might go to hell.
I’m Meena Bilandani, M.A. (English)+Bachelor of Education, pursuing my passion of teaching for more than 15 years. I spend most of my time with my students and with my never-ending learning over here world’s most
spiritual land INDIA..
Let’s begin a new journey!
Grammar learning is not an easy task. It is a tough row to hoe. A lot of practice with constant learning then assimilating within is really a constant journey in itself that needs immense patience to carry on. Speaking and writing any language within a proper framing in a restricted structure, is really an art.
“ Grammar in spoken English is not needed ”, is only a prevalent myth. Yes, for beginners just to encourage them we say not to stick with a heavy set of burden and keep on speaking, especially when the speaker belongs to a regional medium or residing completely in a native environment. But they need not learn grammar, is completely be fooling themselves.
It is exactly like shooting an arrow without a bow. Yes, you can hit an arrow perfectly sometimes, but for a perfect pace ,you need a bow. Yes, of course, if you are growing up under a completely English environment or studying in a school where the native language is strictly restricted to speak,. They learn naturally the things and subconsciously, they use to speak a sentence in a correct framing naturally as they have been provided an environment under which they understand grammatically the sentence is correct .
With my own experience of teaching almost all kinds of board students, I have found, students from completely native background, most of the times pass through the verb mistakes which leave often very awkward situation if they have not studied tenses properly. While students of completely English Medium background pass through part of speech errors which can be actually, not always but often negligible.
So, speaking English in an incorrect framing of tense leaves more awkward situation than misuses of other parts of speeches.
Yes, students from English Medium often argue that they have learned English without learning Tenses, they are actually true but they are unaware of the fact that they have learnt tenses automatically with a practical environment still they are not much confident with their grammar which may lead them in problem in future competitive examinations. And students from native background sometimes try to give examples of such students without understanding the fact that they have got a practical environment.
So as far as I could understand with my own lifelong experience, they can learn English at the first step with the translation method only, then gradually they can acquire constant understanding by continuous writing and having a practical approach. So native speakers, please don’t leave excuses, for learning English there is no need of learning Tense.
Yes, at the beginning level, you must not hesitate, you must try to speak but that doesn’t mean you need not learn and understand grammar. If you are learning grammar with learning Spoken English, it’s all like honey on your sugar cube. You must go parallel if you wish to enhance your writing skill also. But all four skills , whether it’s reading or writing,speaking or listening , everything is needed for comprehending any language.
So for such kinds of learners . ultimately, I am presenting here my Grammar lessons with videos and notes accompanied with exercises. I am presenting here my life long learning of Grammar which could be very helpful for my students in learning the English Language not only in enhancing speaking skills but writing skills as well.
Hope you’ll like all the lessons prepared by me by my hard efforts, and try to leave your precious suggestions.
Do you often wonder how the most successful people spend the early hours of their day? It’s a reasonably common question to possess, considering that success relies tons on the routine you’re taking up daily, and the way you use your given time. “There are 86400 seconds in a day and how you use those […]
Demonstrative is a word that has been derived from the Latin word DEMONSTRARE that means to ‘show something clearly.’
Thus we can say:-
” Demonstrative are the words that point out the ones referred to.”
There are four kinds of Demonstrative-
THIS THIS points out the things, persons or ideas that are very close to us.
Example- This marker is mine. (Means – The marker is very close to the person who is pointing it out.) This book is not yours. (Means the book is very close to the
person who is pointing out.) This idea is better than that one. ( This idea – the idea that is going on in the mind right now.) Were you asking about this boy? (Means the boy is very close to the speaker.)
In precise, we can notice that we are talking about the things or ideas that are very close to us.
That talks about the things, persons, or ideas that are very far from us.
Example That book is not mine. (Means- The book is very far from the person who is pointing it out.)
That idea didn’t really work. (Means- The idea is in the distant memory of the speaker) My bag is better than that of yours. (Means- The bag is very far from the person who is pointing it out.) Your book is heavier than that of mine (Means- The book is far from the speaker)
So we can simply say that the person, things, or ideas that have been mentioned in the above sentences are either far from the speaker or in his distant memories.
Plural of This
‘These’ actually talk s about many persons, things, or ideas that are very close to us. Example
These grapes are very sour. I can’t eat them. Where are you these days? Can you suggest to me some more plans than these?
Plural of That
That talks about many things, persons, things or ideas that area a little or very far from the speaker.
Those clocks never give the correct time. These plants are bigger than those. Those ideas just really didn’t work.
Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions follow:-
“ Of the money that I asked for, only seventy pesos reached me. Send the rest since I need it very much But don’t send it to me through the mail because the post office employees are a bunch of crooks.”
1. The name of the author of the above extract is-
2. The speaker is writing a letter to –
3. ’Bunch of crooks’ means a _____
4. The story ultimately talks about ____
5. Read the following conversation of four persons carefully:-
1ST PERSON:Lencho must not blame the employees. How can he be sure that
the money has been stolen by the post office employees?
2nd PERSON: But the money was really less than he asked for.
3rd PERSON: Because the Post Master could not collect money as much as
Lencho wished for.
4TH PERSON: Yes, and Lencho must be ultimately happy with whatever amount he Got.
Now pick out the option that classifies fact (f) and opinion ( o) of the F- FACT
“All through the night, Lencho thought only of his one hope:
the help of God, Whose eyes as he had been instructed ,see
everything ,even what is deep in one’s conscience.”
The _______ of Lencho’s crop had taken away his sleep.
2. Lencho looks to God for _______.
3. Who comes to Lencho’s rescue?
4. The word ‘instructed’ WILL NOT be similiar to ________
5. The basic character trait of Lencho as revealed in this etract is:-