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REPORTED SPEECH RULES: NARRATION: INDIRECT SPEECH (Part1): Introduction: What is a Reported Speech / Narration?

DEFINITION

Reported Speech is a formation of a sentence that we tell to someone, i.e.to the second person.

Thus based on a conversation, the words of the speaker can be formed in two ways:-

DIRECT

INDIRECT

LEARN WITH VIDEO

Thus two kinds of speeches came into existence

Direct Speech:

The teacher said to the monitor, “ I will be on a leave tomorrow. So collect the notebooks from all the students today only for correction.”

(When the speaker is directly saying something to the listener or when we are repeating the words of the speaker to the third person, is called Direct Speech.)

Indirect Speech:

The teacher told the monitor that she would be on a leave the next day and ordered her to collect all the notebooks from the students that day only.

( Thus when the listener is repeating the words of the speaker to the third person in roundabout a manner ,is called Indirect Speech. )

Parts of Direct Speech:-

Now comes the formation of a Direct Speech-

 There are two parts of a Direct Speech: –

  • Reporting Verb
  • Reported Speech

Ankit said to Ankita , “ Ridhima reads very well.”

(Reporting Verb)     (Reported Speech )

The part or clause that comes outside of the inverted commas ,is called Reporting Verb. The part that is locked inside the inverted commas, is called Reported Speech.

*Remember

The position of the Reporting verb & Reported Speech can be anywhere in the sentence :-

eg.   Ankit said to Ankita , “ Ridhima is a very nice girl.”

“Ridhima” said Ankit to Ankita, “ is a very nice girl.”

“ Ridhima is a very nice girl.” Ankit said to Ankita .

All the lines in green are Reporting verbs. That makes clear that it is not mandatory to have a reporting verb at the beginning of the sentence. Its position can be shifted according to the style of writing.

How to recognize a Direct and an Indirect Sentence :-

How to Recognize a Direct Speech:-

  • The reported sentence is locked in the inverted commas.
    • Antima said , “Do you know  Anuj?”
  • After Reporting Verb, we put a comma. 
    • Antima said , “Do you know  Anuj?”
  • The first letter of reported speech that is locked inside the inverted commas ,is  written in  capital letters.
    • Antima said , “Do you know  Anuj?”
How to Recognize an Indirect Speech:-
  • The reported sentence is unlocked from the inverted commas.
    • Ritika said that she was her best friend.
  • Commas are replaced with the conjunctions i.e. ( that/if /whether )according to the expression of the sentences. 
    • Ritika said that she was her best friend.

Common  Rules of changing a Direct Speech into Indirect Speech:-

  • Inverted commas are removed in Reported speech
  • Commas are replaced with conjunctions i.e. ( that/if /whether ) as per the expression of the sentences.
  • Never change the Tense of a Reporting Verb. Only the Tense of Reported Speech is changed if Reported Verb is Past Tense.

eg.

Direct : Namita says to Nisha , “Mishti likes to play chess”

Indirect: Namita tells Nisha that Mishti likes to play chess. •

Direct: Danish said to Salman , “ I Visited Delhi last Monday”

Indirect : Danish told Salman that he had visited Delhi the previous Monday.

General rules of changing a Direct Speech into Indirect Speech:-

I. Common Changes – applied in the complete Indirect Speech

II . Expression Changes – varies according to the different expressions

i.e. Kinds of sentences

They are again sub divided in the following parts-

I . Common Changes – applied in the complete Indirect Speech

a.Change of Tense

b. Change of Pronoun

c. Change of Time and place •

Read and understand the following sentences and the chart before going further in the detailed study of Change of Tense , Pronoun or Time and Space-

How to change Say / said of Reporting Verb according to different kinds

of sentences :-

Sentence Reporting Verb     Reported SpeechConnector
Assertive   Say 
Says
Say to
Says to
Said
Said to
Told 
  say
says
tell
tells
said to
told
( reports / reported) 
    that
InterrogativeSay /Says / Say to/ Says to / Said/Said to   Told     asked/ enquired of    If / whether
ImperativeRequest   Order     Advice   requested ordered /commanded advised      Connector {to}  
  Proposal  Making proposal proposed to / suggested to   
                   ExclamatorySorrow   Happiness SurpriseExclaimed with sorrow   Exclaimed with joy/happiness   Exclaimed with surprise   that  
 OptativeWish Cursewished/blessed cursed    that (In some cases without connectors)
HOW TO CHANGE SAY /SAID

Examples:

Direct

Ankita says, ” Harsh is my brother.

Shikha says to Nisha, ” Ridhima studies with me. “

Akhil said , “ I can not come to meet you here tomorrow.”

Namita said to me , ” Anubhav has been working hard since last night.”

Nitin said me , ” Will you also go to Goa?”

Rishika said to me , ” Do you have my book?”

Dinesh said to Mayank, ” Return me my bike.”

Simran said to me , ” Please, help me in completing my project.”

Siya said me , ” Have a deep sleep for 6 hours a day.

Babita said to me,” Let’s play tennis.”

Akriti said to Divyani , ” Let’s participate in the quiz. “

Gargi said, “Hurrah ! I have won a trophy.”

Shivani said to me ,” Alas! I have met with an accident.”

Aditi said , ” What a beautiful flower it is !”

Garvit said, “May God bless you !”

Vikram said to his friends , ” May you go to hell !”

Indirect

Ankita tells that Harsh is her brother.

Akhil told Nitesh that he could not go to meet him there the next day.

Shikha tells Nisha that Ridhima studies with her.

Akhil said that he could not meet him there the previous day.

Namita told me that Anubhav had been working hard since last night.

Nitin asked me if I would also go to Goa.

Rishika enquired of me if I had her book.

Dinesh ordered Mayank to return his bike.

Simran requested me to help her in competing her project.

Siya adviced me to have a deep sleep for 6 hours a day.

Babita proposed to me that we should play tennis.

Akriti suggested to Divyani that we must participate in the quiz.

Gargi exclaimed with joy that she had won a trophy.

Shivani exclaimed me with sorrow that she had met with an accident.

Aditi exclaimed with surprise that it was a beautiful flower.

Garvit wished that God might bless me.

Vikram cursed his friend that he might go to hell.

Featured

Words before you start !

KEEP LEARNING ! KEEP BLOOMING !

Welcome Learners !

Greetings !

I’m Meena Bilandani, M.A. (English)+Bachelor of Education , pursuing my passion of teaching for more than 15 years. I spend most of my time with my students and with my never ending learning over here world’s most spiritual land INDIA..

Let’s begin a new journey!

Grammar learning is not an easy task. It is a tough row to hoe. A lot of practice with constant learning then assimilating within is really a constant journey in itself that needs immense patience to carry on. Speaking and writing any language within a proper framing in a restricted structure, is really an art.

“ Grammar in spoken English is not needed ”, is only a prevalent myth. Yes, for beginners just to encourage them we say not to stick with a heavy set of burden and keep on speaking, especially when the speaker belongs to a regional medium or residing completely in a native environment. But they need not learn grammar, is completely be fooling themselves. It is exactly as shooting an arrow without a bow. Yes, you can hit an arrow perfectly sometimes, but for a perfect pace ,you need a bow. Yes, of course, if you are growing up under a completely English environment or studying in a school where the native language is strictly restricted to speak,. They learn naturally the things and subconsciously, they use to speak a sentence in a correct framing naturally as they have been provided an environment under which they understand grammatically the sentence is correct .
With my own experience of teaching almost all kinds of board students, I have found, students from completely native background, most of the times pass through the verb mistakes which leave often very awkward situation if they have not studied tenses properly. While students of completely English Medium background pass through part of speech errors which can be actually, not always but often negligible.
So, speaking English in an incorrect framing of tense leaves more awkward situation than misuses of other parts of speeches.

Yes, students from English Medium often argue that they have learned English without learning Tenses, they are actually true but they are unaware of the fact that they have learnt tenses automatically with a practical environment still they are not much confident with their grammar which may lead them in problem in future competitive examinations.
And students from native background sometimes try to give examples of such students without understanding the fact that they have got a practical environment.
So as far as I could understand with my own lifelong experience, they can learn English at the first step with the translation method only, then gradually they can acquire constant understanding by continuous writing and having a practical approach. So native speakers, please don’t leave excuses, for learning English there is no need of learning Tense. Yes, at the beginning level, you must not hesitate, you must try to speak but that doesn’t mean you need not learn and understand grammar. If you are leaning grammar with learning Spoken English, it’s all like honey on your sugar cube. You must go parallel if you wish to enhance your writing skill also. But all four skills , whether it’s reading or writing,speaking or listening , everything is needed for comprehending any language.

So for such kinds of learners . ultimately, I am presenting here my Grammar lessons with videos and notes accompanied with exercises. I am presenting here my life long learning of Grammar which could be very helpful for my students in learning the English Language not only in enhancing speaking skills but writing skills as well.

Hope you’ll like all the lessons prepared by me by my hard efforts, and try to leave your precious suggestions.

Thank You !

Happy Learning !

Topics to be covered:-

  • The complete explanation of each Grammar topic
  • Video Lectures
  • Exercises for practice after each topic
  • Quizzes

COMPLAIN LETTER PRACTICE PAPER CBSE BASED

Question 

 1.Your name is Jack or Jimi. You live in the countryside area of Nagpur your locality is frequently facing some serious issues of robbery in the recent months. Write a letter of complaint to the Commissioner of Police describing the whole situation and asking him to look into the matter as soon as possible.
 
2.   You are Shivam or Shivani residing in 1545 Kirti Nagar, New Delhi. Write a letter to the Deputy Commissioner of Police drawing his attention to the deteriorating law and order situation in the City.
 
3.   Write a letter of complaint to the secretary of your society and inform him about the careless behaviour of the security guard which could lead to potential problems later on.

Editorial Letter Questions CBSE BASED:

QUESTIONS EDITORIAL LETTER

 
1. At your grandmother’s house 26/8 Gwalior, M.P., you were quite shocked to see such the best quality of water. Write a letter to the editor and ask him to write an article to make the citizens and government aware of the problem of increasing the bad quality of water. You are Panjal/Priti.
 
2. Write a letter to the Postmaster of Jawaharlal Ghar Delhi inquiring about the whereabouts of a courier you said sent to your parents in Dehradun. You are Sunidhi/ Sujay.
 
3. Two main parks in your locality have suffered from neglect on the part of local authorities. They have virtually been taken over by undesirable elements. As a result, the residents have stopped going to the parks. Write a letter to the editor of a local newspaper expressing your concern about the problems the neglect has created and suggest measures to reclaim the parks for children. You are Gautam/Gauri 2, Gobind Enclave, Meerut.

 

ARTICLE WRITING: HOW TO WRITE AN ARTICLE: CBSE ARTICLE WRITING FORMAT AND SAMPLE

What is an Article Writing?

“An Article Writing is a piece of writing on any social issue intended to be published in newspaper or magazine sharing different thoughts, opinions, facts, records, information or pieces of advice with balanced arguments so that general public and authorities could be alert and try to solve the problem.”

FORMATION OF ARTICLE WRITING

An Article Writing consists of four basic parts:-

  • TITLE
  • WRITER’S NAME
  • MAIN BODY- a. Introduction b. Exposition c. Winding-up
  • CLOSING

Now let’s get into each part separately-

 I. TITLE

  • Eye-catching 
    The first and foremost thing is ‘the title of the Article’, which must be eye-catching. It must focus on the main topic of the issue catching the attention of the readers.
  •   Must be Written in BLOCK LETTER
  •    Must not exceed 4 to 5 words 

Example:

  • EVILS OF SCIENCE
  • LIFE DURING LOCKDOWN
  •  A HELLISH LIFE DURING PANDEMIC
  •   Can be in a single word or one       phrase also 

Example

  •     TERRORISM 
  •     WATER RESOURCES

 ( But it is recommended try to write a more impressive title)

  • Must be thought-provoking 
    For catching the attention of the readers we can ask some questions so that readers might pay more attention to listen to our words. You can make it thought-provoking in the following ways:
  • Can be in a question format 
    Example 
  • CAN YOU ALSO HEAR ANIMAL’S CRY?
  • DO YOU LOVE JUNK FOOD?
  • HAVE YOU LEARNT TIME MANAGEMENT?
  • Subtitle
    (To the main title, we can add subtitles also for making it more impressive. )
    Examples 
         DOWRY SYSTEM- A BLOT ON SOCIETY 
         INVENTIONS OF SCIENCE-BANE OR BOON?
         SCHOOL SPORTS DAY – A GREAT EVENT!

 II. WRITER’S NAME

The writer’s name can be written in two ways:-
we can write the writer’s name just below the title
or
Just at the end of the article at the right hand.

  III. MAIN BODY

The main body also consists of three basic parts:-
a. Introduction b. Exposition

c. Winding-up

a. Introduction

   Write a suitable Introduction of the Issue.

While introducing the issue of the article, we need to focus on the following points-
Try to establish context with a good introduction of a topic.
you can introduce the topic by writing:-

  • A good slogan or quote
  • Defining the topic

(You can introduce your topic by defining the problem or issue. we can also provoke the thought of the readers by asking some burning questions so that the readers might be more excited to read your article.)

b. Exposition
We can also open the different layers of a topic by showing various aspects of our problem or issue.
For making our topic more impressive we can show different kinds of:-

Examples

“I notice daily two boys aged around 12 to 14 working day and night 

at my neighboring hotel .”

-Statistics 

” From the year 2018 to 2019, there has been seen a dramatic leap of percentage in road accidents. They have been increased from 30 to 60 percent. “
-Causes 

“The major reasons behind the road accidents are due to violations of rules of the road.”
-Advantages or disadvantages- 

” Besides having different kinds of disadvantages, a mobile phone has its advantages also if we use it wisely.”

Remember:- It is not necessary to include all the elements. Write only which suits your topic.

c. WindingUP

Wind up or sum up the main Idea by:-

-An opinion

“Children can play an important role in stopping this cruelty to animals.”
-Criticism
“The police in general let off the violence easily after getting their palm greased.”

IV. CLOSING
We can conclude an Article in three different ways:-
-By showing hope
“But I hope people of the modern age would
try to understand the need for their brains to utilize in the service of their motherland.”
Leaving a warning
If we keep on killing animals  continuously in this way, soon there will come a day finding human  to survive for his life.”
Making an Appeal 
” Oh! Children of the world – animals, and birds are crying
for your help, they cannot survive without your support.”

HAPPY LEARNING!

SAMPLE - CLASS 10TH

ANIMAL’S CRY FOR HELP

-by Garima Jadun

ANIMALS’ CRY FOR HELP

    -by Nisha Tiwari

Man is perhaps the only animal who ill-treats and even kills other animals for his pleasure.

He destroys their natural habitats and ruthlessly kills animals for their skins, bones, and meat, although he is not a meat-eater by nature and holds life sacred.
 
Did you know that counts of animals and birds have been killed, mutilated, or decapitated in the name of scientific experiments, testing, and research? Rats, birds, and monkeys are not only kept in cramped and overcrowded cages but also subjected to ruthless treatment in the cold-blooded way in Laboratories the poor silent souls cannot even express the pain and suffering they are subjected to.
 
Most of them die a premature, painful, and unnatural death. Circuses, roadshows, cattle, and bird markets are also traps for these helpless creatures. Monkeys bears and parrots are ill-treated by Circus people and roadside showmen to make money by showing their tricks, bulls horses, mules, camels, and donkeys are made a carry heavy loads.
 
 Oh, Children of the world,! Animals and birds are crying for your help.  They cannot survive without your support. Listen to their pathetic voice and save them! 

SAMPLE - CLASS 12TH
(Increase Word Limits)

ANIMALS’ CRY FOR HELP

    -by Nisha Tiwari

Man is perhaps the only animal who ill-treats and even kills other animals for his pleasure.

He destroys their natural habitats and ruthlessly kills animals for their skins, bones, and meat, although he is not a meat-eater by nature and holds life sacred.
 
Did you know that counts of animals and birds have been killed , mutilated or decapitated in the name of scientific experiments, testing and research? Rats, birds, and monkeys are not only kept in cramped and overcrowded cages but also subjected to ruthless treatment in the cold-blooded way in Laboratories the poor silent souls cannot even express the pain and suffering they are subjected to.
 
Most of them die a premature, painful, and unnatural death. Circuses, roadshows, cattle, and bird markets are also traps for these helpless creatures. Monkeys bears and parrots are ill-treated by Circus people and roadside showmen to make money by showing their tricks, bulls horses, mules, camels, and donkeys are made a carry heavy loads.
 
Children can play an important role in stopping this cruelty to animals. They must join hands to create awareness for ethical and human treatment.  They can join protests and rallies against animal testing and launch signature campaigns for the firm. Also, they must buy animals product or products which have been tested on animals. They should adopt animals as pets and support animals and environment conversation programs.  
 
Oh, Children of the world,! Animals, and birds are crying for your help.  They cannot survive without your support. Listen to their pathetic voice and save them! 

MODAL QUIZ: GRAMMAR QUIZ: QUIZ ON CAN COULD MAY MIGHT SHOULD MUST OUGHT TO

MODAL AUXILIARY INTRODUCTION

CAN vs COULD

Modal is a word derived from a Latin word means

Correct! Wrong!

Modal auxiliary verbs show

Correct! Wrong!

There are basically ____ kinds of verbs

Correct! Wrong!

The other name of the helping verb is

Correct! Wrong!

To be, to have, to do -are parts of

Correct! Wrong!

Semi Auxiliary is a part of ______ verbs

Correct! Wrong!

Need, Dare and Use to are parts of

Correct! Wrong!

After Modal Auxilary Verbs , We use

Correct! Wrong!

Which is the correct sentence ?

Correct! Wrong!

Modal Auxiliary always takes

Correct! Wrong!

Tap the correct sentences

Correct! Wrong!

There are ____kinds of Semi-modals

Correct! Wrong!

1. Akshat____swim fast when he lived in Haridwar.

Correct! Wrong!

2. Just wait . I ____ finish my work within the given time limit.

Correct! Wrong!

3. ______ you please provide me 100 rs change,sir ?I had to leave for the station in a hurry.

Correct! Wrong!

4. ____ you shift a little please, my dear friend ?

Correct! Wrong!

5. I am afraid, I ______ play anymore. I am a lot of tired.

Correct! Wrong!

6. Why didn’t you participate ? You ______ won the race.

Correct! Wrong!

7. I went to every drugstore, but I ______ the medicine.

Correct! Wrong!

8. Oh, great ! You have cooked the complete dinner. ____ I help you to make chapatis ?

Correct! Wrong!

9. If I had listened to my teachers, I ______ led a happy life today.

Correct! Wrong!

10. I ______ solve this problem very easily.

Correct! Wrong!

MAY vs MIGHT

SHOULD MUST OUGHT TO

____ you always be happy !

Correct! Wrong!

_______ I use your phone please? It’s urgent ,I have forgotten mine at home.

Correct! Wrong!

Arpita reported that she ______ not join the party .

Correct! Wrong!

It ____ be very expensive, but it’s much better than the others.

Correct! Wrong!

Ankit tells Richa that she ____ be late today.

Correct! Wrong!

I was just wondering whether you ____ be able to help me.

Correct! Wrong!

Might shows:-

Correct! Wrong!

He has broken his leg. He _____ win the race.

Correct! Wrong!

He is suffering from high fever. He _____ take the exam today. Still we must wait for him sometime before catching the bus.

Correct! Wrong!

The farmer is working hard on his field so that he _______ have a good crop this year.

Correct! Wrong!

MAY vs MIGHT
Your Score

Share your Results:

What ____I do now?

Correct! Wrong!

______ we not listen to our elders ?

Correct! Wrong!

The preachers _______ follow the spiritual path first then preach others.

Correct! Wrong!

_______ it gets dark, I shall return in the morning.

Correct! Wrong!

Life is changing every moment . We_______ keep ourselves always up to date.

Correct! Wrong!

We ______ not go against our parents.

Correct! Wrong!

Paint carefully lest you ______spoils all your work.

Correct! Wrong!

Sneha asked me if I ______go with her for searching for her lost watch.

Correct! Wrong!

Ananya ___never tell lies.

Correct! Wrong!

_______ we follow his pieces of advise ?

Correct! Wrong!

We ____always respect out National emblems.

Correct! Wrong!

They are looking towards us consistently. They _____ be curios what we are doing.

Correct! Wrong!

You _______not leave the tap open. It is just wastage of water.

Correct! Wrong!

_____ I leave now ?

Correct! Wrong!

He has worked very hard. He ______ win this trophy this year.

Correct! Wrong!

FORMAL LETTER / COMPLAIN LETTER: EDITORIAL LETTER WITH SAMPLE AND EXAMPLES

FORMAL LETTER

FORMAL LETTER

Following are the categories under which a  Formal Letter falls:- 

  • to our communication on the official level
  • to government officials
  • business houses
  • customers
  • editors

That is why the tone of such kinds of letters must always be formal precise and to the point.  As the term itself indicates – a formal letter is written in a formal style i.e. the language and tone of the letter must be formal, impersonal, objective but pleasant. Therefore no formal expressions greetings or contracted forms of words are used. The language must be straightforward and to the point. It may be strongly worded but never impolite.

Informal Letters, we write only to our relatives or dearest one so there are
not many divisions of such kinds of letters while a Formal Letter – is divided in again different parts. So formal letter is again classified in
different parts –

  1. Editorial Letter
  2. Complain Letter
  3. Business letters
  4. Job application
    These four parts are again classified into different parts that I’ll explain to you
    when explaining the formats of all these kinds of letters. 

Format of a Formal Letter/Complain Letter

Sender’s Address

__________________

__________________

 

Date: ( American/British Format)

           American: July 15, 2021

           British: 15th July 2021

 

Designation

Area Name/Street Name

City Name

 

Salutation

Subject: _______________

 

 

 

Body

of

letter

 

Thanking You

 

Yours Sincerely

Name

(Designation if needed) 

Chanakya Group of Institution

42 Kasturba Marg

New Delhi

 

15th July 2020

 

 

 

The Police Commissioner

Rohtak Road

Bareilly

 

Sir/Ma’am

 

Subject: in a line

 

Opening

Discuss the issue

Tell the solutions

Closing

 

Thanking you

Yours sincerely

xyz

(Secretary)

SAMPLE FORMAL LETTER

COMPLAIN LETTER - 1

Question
A leading news channel recently gave live coverage of some young slum dwellers being beaten up mercilessly by the police for a crime not committed by them. Such atrocities shake the faith of people. Write a letter to the Commissioner of Police urging him to adopt effective measures to cope with such brutality against innocent people. You are Niti or Nitesh, a resident of  7/11 Refinery Road, Guwahati.
 
 

7/11 Refinery Road

Guwahati 
 
1st February 2021
 
The Police Commissioner
Police Head Quarters 
New Delhi 
 
Sir 
 
Subject: request for curbing police brutality against innocent people
 
I would like to draw your attention to the media coverage by all the leading news channels of the country, of the incident of police action against some young slum dwellers of Yamuna.
 
NDTV for example in its “News at 9”  program showed a posse of drunk policemen wreaking havoc in the slum dragging three young men by their hair and beating them with sticks and belts just because they had refused to pay the hafta. The three sustained serious head and rib cage injuries and were admitted to Sir Ganga Ram Hospital.
 
Sir, why it is that the police which are meant for the safety and security of the public get into the news for all the wrong reasons? When will your department learn to be human?  When will it learn to serve the public instead of intermediate in it?
 
Through this letter, I urge you to personally look into the incident and take effective steps to curb police brutality Against The Innocent poor.
 
Hoping for an appropriate and prompt action.
 
Yours truly
Nitesh / Niti
 
 

COMPLAIN LETTER -2

Question
As a President of the Residents’ Welfare Association of your area,  write a letter to the Member of Parliament of your constituency ( Mr. Girdharlal) complaining about the excess flow of traffic outside the school gate of GL and Public School give constructive suggestions.
 
 
B_16 Kirti Nagar
Yamuna Nagar 
 
February 2, 2021
 
Shri Girdhar Lal 
Member of Parliament ( Rajya Sabha)
10 The Mall
Delhi 
 
Sir
 
Subject:  complaining against the excess flow of traffic outside of school gate
 
I would like to introduce myself as the President of the Residents’ Welfare Association of Kirti Nagar and I wish to draw your kind attention to the problem created by the excessive flow of traffic outside the GL and Public School Gate.   The Rock created by fast-moving trucks, buses, scooters, bikes, auto-rickshaw, and their homes is playing havoc with the academic environment of the school. It distracts and disturbs the students and teachers making studies impossible.
 
The SSP of the district has been approached by the principal many a time in this connection but nothing has been done so far day by day the problem is worsening.
 
May I, therefore, on behalf of all the residents of the area request you to take a personal interest in the matter and convert the area around the school into a no-horn zone the road outside the school building should be closed for heavy vehicles at least during school hours these vehicles can be easily diverted to the adjoining road.
 
I hope you will use your good offices with the Transport Authority and the police to take effective measures in this regard.
 
Thanking you 
 
Yours faithfully 
Raj Singh Dalmia 
President, RWA
 
 
 

EDITORIAL LETTER FORMAT

Sender’s Address

__________________

__________________

 

Date: ( American/British Format)

 

Designation

Newspaper Name

City Name

 

Salutation

 

Subject: _______________

 

 

 

Body

 

of

 

letter

 

  

Thanking You

 

Yours Sincerely

Name

(Designation if needed) 

Chanakya Group of Institution

42 Kasturba Marg

New Delhi

 

15th July 2020

 

The Editor

The Hindustan Times

New Delhi

 

Sir/Ma’am

 

Subject: in a line

 

Opening

 

Discuss the issue

 

Tell the solutions

 

Closing

 

 

Thanking you

 

Yours sincerely

xyz

(Secretary)

SAMPLE OF AN EDITORIAL LETTER

Question

Terrorism is no more than  a local  global issue. It is a global concern now. Write a letter to the Times of India voicing your concern and views on the issue which needs immediate redressal. You are Tarun / Taruni ,88 Block Road , Jaipur , Rajasthan.a

88 Block Road

Jaipur, Rajasthan

 

17th December  2020

The Editor

The Times of India

New Delhi

Sir

Subject: Against the Prevailing Violence

Through the column of your newspaper, I wish to draw the attention of the government and the general public to the ever-increasing menace of terrorism.

 

The world today is in the grip of terror more than ever before. Terrorism, whatever is its brand and ideology, leaves a trail of death and destruction behind.The long persistent problem of Kashmir, the communal terrorism in India, Mumbai attacks threat of Indo Pak Nuclear War and some more horrible conflicts than the common man can take in.  

 

I would be obliged to you if you publish my letter in your esteemed newspaper so that the general public might be alert and try to join hands together to resolve this problem and the government might also take tight steps to solve this problem.

Thanking you

 

Yours truly

Tarun/Taruni

 

CLEFT SENTENCE: KINDS OF A CLEFT SENTENCE: IT CLEFT: WH CLEFT: CLEFT PART OF A COMPLEX SENTENCE

CLEFT SENTENCE

READ THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES CAREFULLY:

  • It is my ice cream that you are enjoying.
  • What I need right now to have a cup of coffee.
  • It isn’t the color I was looking for.

These are the sentences that we often find in our day to day conversation. They are useful not only in Informal English but also in Formal English. But only a few know and understand the formation of the CLEFT SENTENCES. 

So what is the exact formation of such kinds of sentences? I am going to explain you here.

MEANING OF the word CLEFT
The meaning of the word cleft is –TO DIVIDE
so before proceeding ahead let’s have an idea of cleft sentences.

  • It is my watch that has been broken.
  • What they like for breakfast to have bread and butter.
  • That was Ankita who arrived first.
  • All I need to do right now to have a cup.

DEFINITION OF A CLEFT SENTENCE

So as it is clear with the world CLEFT

the meaning of which is to -divide
the definition also goes like this –

“A sentence parted in two different clauses
connecting the old information with the
new one emphasizing or focusing the new
information is called a cleft sentence.”

BASIC FEATURES OF A CLEFT SENTENCE

  1. 1. A cleft sentence is a complex sentence itself.
  2. It is divided into two parts.
  3. Every part has its own separate verb.
  4. It connects the old information with a new one.
  5. It focuses basically on the new information.

EXAMPLES

Nisha was absent yesterday.
No, It was Disha who was absent yesterday.

Be Attentive!

New information- It was Disha
Old Information- It was Nisha…

This means, there was someone absent yesterday. but Who was that? There was some confusion in the name. Who was that? That was Disha. So the old information was corrected with the new information, on which we focused or emphasized.

KINDS OF CLEFT SENTENCES

kinds of cleft sentences 

Now, there are two kinds of Cleft Sentences-

  • It cleft
  • Wh Cleft

IT CLEFT

In IT CLEFT, the focus is given on
the first Clause or the primary clause only.

Thus we can say , the clause that has IT

as a subject, is called It cleft because it focuses on the given clause that has IT 

as a subject.

Example

  • Was Kirtika’s dog lost?
  • No, IT WAS MY DOG that was lost.

It was my dog- NEW INFORMATION
that was lost- OLD INFORMATION.

 THE FORMATION OF IT CLEFT

IT+ BE+ OBJECT(emphasized word/phrase)+that/who clause

Example:

  • Divyam has secured the highest percentage in his class.
    No, It’s Shivam who has secured the highest percentage in the class.

So because we have given stress on the main noun who is the real achiever, we added him in the first clause that is the It-clause.

(It was Shivam) ( New information)

  • Anjani reads Shruti’s diary.
    No,It was Rishali’s diary that 

         was read by Anjani.

(Rishali’s diary )(new information)

REPLACEMENT OF IT
Sometimes we use other Demonstrative Pronouns also to replace IT.

Example

  • Those are the trees that have been cut down by someone yesterday.
  • That was the ice cream flavour that I wanted to taste.
  • These are the notes I was searching for.

 

WH CLEFT/ PSEUDO CLEFT

WH cleft is called pseudo cleft also. In WH-cleft the focus is given on the second part or the secondary clause.
Example-

  • What can I do for you?
    What you can do for me is

         to help me in completing my project.

The formation of a WH cleft sentence
WH-ClAUSE + BE+ emphasized word or phrase

Example –

  • What do you need right now?
    What I need is just to have an ice cream
    right now.

‘just to have ice cream’- New Information

‘What I need’ – Old information
REPLACEMENT OF WH-CLEFT

sometimes we can replace WH with –

#All
#The first thing
#The one thing

Examples-

  • The first thing I noticed in the morning
    was a beautiful flower blooming in my garden.
  • The one thing I want right now to be alone.
  • All you need is to have a rest for some time.

REVERSING WH CLEFT

We can use WH cleft clause

in reverse order also

Example

  • The new mobile is what I really need now.
  • Venice is the place where I really wish to
    visit once in my lifetime.

CLEFT WITH MODAL AUXILIARY

we can use modal auxiliary verbs also in
cleft sentences.

Example

  • It may be my fault that the rose plant in my garden died soon.
  • What I need now might be some snacks.
  • What you can do for me is just accompany me by the crossing.
  • IT could my illusion that you visited at the nearest mall yesterday.

THANK YOU!
HAPPY LEARNING!

EXERCISES

1______  would do is clear my point first.

a.That I said
b.What I s
c.It is what
d.What said

Ans: What I
2______ liked about him was his generous 

  behaviour.

a.What I
b.That I
c.What
d.It’s what I

Ans: What I
3______ everything started to fall apart.

a.It was 2020 when
b.2020 it was
c.2020 was where
d.Was 2020 when

Ans: It was 2020 when

4.Akshat was ______ came up with the original idea.

a.the person who
b.that
c.who
d.the person

Ans: the person who
5______ is to keep themselves safe from any upcoming danger.

a.The reason why they did it
b.How they did it
c.Because they did it
d.It’s why they did it

Ans: The reason why they did it

Tell the new and old information in the following Cleft sentences.

1 It was John who stole your watch.
No, It was Niyus who stole my watch.

Old information: ________
New Information: _________

2 What do you desire from your life?
All that I desire from my life is to enjoy a peaceful life.

3 That one thing you need right now is to meet your best friend.
No, It is y family that I need to meet right now.

Old information: ________
New Information: _________

4 It may be my fault that I met him.
No, It is the fault of start that you met him.
Old information: ________
New Information: _________

5 Those are the books that I was searching for.
No, These are the books that I was searching for.
Old information: ________
New Information: _________

6 What would you like to have for dinner.

Rice and Curry is the one thing I would like to have FOR dinner.

Old information: ________
New Information: _________

 

KEEP ON PRACTICING!

 

ARTICLES: EXERCISES OF ARTICLES A, AN AND THE: CORRECT USES OF A AN THE

Exercise: Correct uses of Determiners

I. Fill in the blanks with the correct usage of Indefinite Article( a or an):-

a. Edison was ____intelligent scientist.

b. He works in ___insurance company.

c. ______ Industrious man is praised by everyone.

d. Ravi gave me ___useful book.

e. India is ___ hot country.

f. ____ apple ____ keeps a doctor away.

g. The train is running at eighty-kilometer ___hour.

h. Have you seen ____ white elephant?

g. _____ airplane made ___ loud noise.

h. Have you seen ____ white elephant?

i. This was ____ ultimate decision. 

j. Don’t make hurry.

Answer: 

a. an, b. an

c. an, d. a

e. a,   f. an, a

g. an,   h. a 

i. an,  j. a 

II. Rewrite the following sentences with the correct uses of ARTICLES:

a. Rich are not always kind.

b. Boys made loud noise.

c. Fox is clever animal.

d. Everyone respects honest man.

e. I have black umbrella.

f.  There is hospital in my village.

g. Cow is a useful animal.

h.  The Delhi is big city.

i.  Peacock dances gracefully.

Answers:

a.The rich are not always kind.

b. The boys made a loud noise.

c. The fox is a clever animal.

d. Everyone respects an honest man.

e. I have a black umbrella.

f. There is a hospital in my village. 

g. The cow is a useful animal.

h. Delhi is a big city. 

i. The peacock dances gracefully. 

 

 

 

III. Write RIGHT or WRONG. 

a. The Kanpur is an industrious city.

b. Silver is a useful metal.

c. I go to the office daily at 7 am.

d. I’ll meet you in library. 

e. The Darkest cloud has silver linings. 

f. Both boys are naughty . ( )

g. The Sharmas have gone on a tour. () 

h. See at the last page of

     my book.(  )

I. The English is very easy to understand. ( )

Answer:

a. wrong

b. right

c. wrong

d. wrong

e. right

f. wrong

g. right

h. right

I. wrong 

WAIT FOR MORE EXERCISES

ARTICLE: THE: USES OF THE: DETERMINER THE: REPETITION OF ARTICLES: OMISSION OF ARTICLES

The Topic of Articles come under three parts:-

I. The Correct usage of Article s     a. Indefinite Articles ( a & an )   b. Definite Article ( The )

II. Repetition of Articles

III. Omission of Articles

Note :

The is used with: Singular & Plural both:-

Examples:-

  • I visited the Red Fort yesterday.
  • The mangoes I bought today, were really delicious.

Learn with video

                                       &     

                                  Notes

I. THE CORRECT USES OF ARTICLE THE

 

 Pointing out the nouns already referred to:-
  • When I was roaming in the garden. I plucked a beautiful flower.
  • This is the flower I plucked from the garden. (pointing out referred already)  
  • When I was going to market a boy asked me about you.
  • This is the boy who was asking about you. (pointing out referred already)

 2. With all the Celestial /Universal / Unique things

  •  The earth
  • The moon
  • The stars
  • The oceans

The sun revolves around the earth.

The ocean looks beautiful at the midnight.

3. Before the parts of the days

  • The morning
  • The evening
  • The noon
  • The noon shines with the purple rays of the sun.

I’ll return in the evening.

4. With Modern unique things

a. Thousands of students today are having their online classes through the internet.

b. We have arranged a lot of amount for pandemic victims through crowdfunding.

5.. With government/government bodies

(Army /police / navy)

  • Takes THE when they are talked as an institute
  • The police are performing their duties perfectly well.
  • The navy sailed to the north for the next destination.
  • I have served in the army for four years.

But we use (a/an) when referring to their characteristics

India has a strong army.

A weak army can be the basic reason for the defeat of any country.  

6. Before all the geographical areas/bodies

a.  Before the mountain ranges

  • The Himalayas,
  • The Alps

But never use articles before their peaks.

  • Mount Everest, Mount Olympus.

b. The names of rivers, seas, deserts

  • The Taj is situated on the bank of the Yamuna. 
  • London is situated on the bank of the Thames. 
  • The Arctic Ocean touches the continents of North America, Europe, and Asia
  • The Gobi Desert is called ‘ beast of the desert.

c.  Before the names of states /countries when different entities are grouped together

                           The United States of America (the group of states)

                           The Punjab ( a place of five rivers)

7. When we take Singular Common Noun as a whole class

  • The dog is a faithful animal.
  • The cow lives on grass.
  • The peacock dances gracefully.

8. Before the name of surnames:

  • The Sharmas
  • The varmas

8. With Proper nouns in some cases

a. When Proper noun is used as a TITLE

  • Alexander the great
  • The great Ashoka
  • Akbar the great

b. When Proper Noun takes the Plural form

  • India needs the Bhagat Sings, The Veer Savarkars, the Azads, and the Laxmibais again to make it free from corruption.

c. When Proper Nouns are talked as if Common Noun( adjective of a noun.)

  • Kashmir is called the Switzerland of India
  • Kalidas is called the Shakespeare of India

9. Before the name of all the religious books

  • The Bhagwat Gita, The Quaran Shariff,

10. When the Adjective is talked as if Noun of Multitude

  • The rich should help the poor.
  • The brave must always protect the weak.

11. Before the double Comparative Degree

  • The more you eat the more you will grow fat.
  • The higher you go the cooler you will feel.

But not before the single comparative degrees.

  • The lotus is more beautiful than the rose.

18. Before the Superlative degrees

  • The lotus is the most beautiful among all the flowers.
  • Abhishek is the naughtiest boy in the class.

19. Before the names of Newspapers.

  • The Times of India
  • The Hindustan Times

21. Before the names of all the trains, airplanes, and ships

  • The Indian Express
  • The Victory
  • The Indan Airlines 

22. ALWAYS USE ARTICLE AFTER ‘ ALL ‘ AND ‘BOTH’

  • All the boys in this class are naughty.
  • Both the flowers are very sweet. 

II. REPETITION OF ARTICLE THE

1.When two or more than two Adjectives qualify one single Noun

I saw a red and white flower in my garden today. (one flower)

The blue and white wallet in your hand is mine. ( one wallet )

 

When different Adjectives qualify different Nouns,

we use articles before every Adjective-

I saw a red and a white flower in my garden today. ( two flowers)

The blue and the white wallets in your hand are mines. ( Two wallets)

 

Common error

The blue and the white wallet in your hand are mine. ( Two wallets)

Exception:-  If a Noun is in plural form, we must not repeat Articles

The first and second chapters are interesting.

( The first and the second chapter are interesting )

The French and English left the field.

NOTE: HERE THE FRENCH AND THE ENGLISH ARE TALKED AS COLLECTIVE NOUN TOGETHER THAT IS WHY THE SENTENCE TOOK ‘THE’ ONLY BEFORE FIRST NOUN ‘ THE FRENCH’.

IF WE HAVE TO TALK ABOUT THE DWELLERS OF FRANCE AND ENGLAND SEPARATELY, WE ‘LL USE ARTICLE THE SEPARATELY BEFORE FRENCH AND ENGLISH 

Example :

The French defeated the English. 

Remember when we use the before the name of any language, we never use THE  but when we are talking about the dwellers of any country, we’ll use THE.

2. When two different Nouns belong to one single person or thing, we use the article only before the first noun:-

The director and principal of the school welcomed the chief guest at the Annual Function. (one person)

3. When two different Nouns belong to different persons or things, we use an article before every noun:-

The director and the principal of the school welcomed the chief guest at the Annual Function.

The CEO and the manager have arrived. Now the meeting is going to arrive soon. 

 

 

III. OMISSION OF ARTICLES

1. NEVER USE ARTICLES BEFORE A PROPER NOUN

  •   I am going to Kolkata. ( right)
  •   I am going to THE Kolkata. ( wrong )
  •   Is your name Priyanshu? (right)
  •  Are you the PRIYANSHU? (wrong)

2. NEVER USE ARTICLE BEFORE A MATERIAL NOUN

  •  Gold is a precious metal. (right)
  • The crops of wheat have been spoiled this year. (right)
  • The Crops of THE wheat has been spoiled this year.

BUT NOT BEFORE THE ARTICLES OF SOME MATERIALS

 

  • I have A gold ring ( right)
  • I have  A gold ring. (wrong)
  • You will be hit hard with AN iron rod. (right)
  • You will be hit hard with an iron rod. ( wrong) 

You will be hit hard with an iron rod. ( wrong )

3. NEVER USE ARTICLES BEFORE THE NAMES OF COLOURS

Blue is my favourite colour. ( right)

THE blue Is my favourite colour. ( wrong)

BUT IF COLOUR NAME IS ADDED WITH ANY OBJECT,

WE’LL USE ARTICLE

 

I have  A black shirt. (right)

I have a black shirt. ( wrong)

 

4. NEVER USE ARTICLES BEFORE AN ABSTRACT NOUN.

Honesty is the best policy. ( right)

 THE honest is the best policy.( wrong)

5. NEVER USE ARTICLES BEFORE THE NAMES OF GAMES

I like to play chess. ( right)

I like to play THE play chess. ( wrong)

6. NEVER USE ARTICLES BEFORE THE NAMES OF SUBJECTS

I like Physics. ( right)

I like THE PHYSICS. (wrong )

7. NEVER USE ARTICLES BEFORE REGULAR MEALS

     ( LUNCH, BREAKFAST, DINER)

Have you had your dinner? ( right)

Have you had your THE dinner?

BUT USE ARTICLE IF WE HAVE AN ADJECTIVE BEFORE THESE NOUNS

Last Sunday, I had A  nice breakfast at this hotel. ( right)

Last Sunday, I had a nice breakfast at this hotel. (WRONG)

8. NEVER USE ARTICLES BEFORE ANY EDIBLES

I had rice for dinner last night. ( right)

I had THE rice in my dinner. ( wrong)

BUT ARTICLES ARE USED IF WE HAVE AN ADJECTIVE BEFORE THAT MEAL

9. NEVER USE ARTICLE BEFORE 

GOD , HEAVEN ,HELL

God is in Heaven .(right)

The God is the Heaven. ( wrong )

Satan lived in Hell. ( right)

Satan lived in the Hell. ( wrong)

NOTE : Always start the spellings of God ,Heaven , Hell. with capital letter only. 

10. NEVER USE ARTICLE AFTER 

    Effect, Appoint, Crown, and Make,

Nitin was made the monitor of the class. 

He was crowned king. 

 

SPECIAL RULES

After Half, we always use article –  A’ & An’

I will return after half an hour.

I would like to have only a piece of  Chocolate cake.

After Half, we always use article –  A’ & An’

I will return after half an hour.

I would like to have only a piece of  Chocolate cake.

Always

take Indefinite

 Articles

After Such, we always use the article ‘a’ or ‘an’

I have never seen such an intelligent girl.

I have never seen such a boy. ( you are a typical boy to be understood.)

After So, we always use the article ‘a’ or ‘an’

I had no sleep in so cold a night.

India is facing so brutal an army.

With the phrases ‘kind of’ and sort of ‘ we never use ARTICLES

What kind of a person you are! (wrong)

What kind of person you are  ! (right)

What sort of joke it is! ( right)

What sort of a joke it is! ( wrong )

 

 

USES OF INDFINITE ARTICLE A AND AN

LEARN WITH VIDEOS

SEMI MODAL VERB: USE TO :NEED: DARE

USES OF 'USE TO'

USE TO is a part of semi Modal Verb as it is used as Modal Auxiliary Verb and then as Principal Verb as well.

Now, the study of  ‘use to ‘comes under 3 parts:

I. USE TO ‘ AS A MODAL AUXILIARY VERB’

II.  USE TO ‘AS A PRINCIPAL VERB’ 

III. USE TO ‘AS AN ADJECTIVE ‘

I. USE TO AS A MODAL VERB 

(FOR SHOWING HABITUAL ACTIONS)

Commonly, ‘Use to’ shows habits. 

Now there are two kinds of habits –

  • Temporary habits 
  • Permanently habits

So ‘use to’ is used with Temporary and Permanent habits both. 

  • I use to have a walk early in the morning. 
  • I use to leave for my office daily at 7 am.

But if the sentence is talking about Past Permanent habits 

The use of ‘ USED TO ‘ is preferred. 

  • I used to teach in St. Xavier School when I lived in Meerut.
  • I used to leave for my office at 7 am when I lived in Agra. 

Then what about Temporary habits ???

  • I used to attend a Teaching workshop every Saturday at my last school. 

For showing Temporary habits use of ‘ WOULD ‘ is preferred. 

  •  I would visit the beach often when I lived in Goa
  •  Malini would visit my home when we studied in school. 

Now the question arises –    

    “ How will you recognize temporary or permanent habits?”

When you repeat any work often but that is not your definite routine. You might be fond of doing any work but you don’t have any compulsion to complete that work. (You like walking but you are not compelled to walk) But when we are talking about the extended action i.e you are bound to do any work for a long period, you’ll use USED TO. 

REMEMBER:

Sometimes USED TO / WOULD both are used for the past repeated action also. 

( When action is repeated again and again)

  •  When she lived in the hostel with me she would do nothing but cry.
  • When she lived with me in the hostel she used to cry a lot. 
  • II. USE TO ‘AS A PRINCIPAL VERB’ 

Because USE TO is a part of Semi Modal, it is used as a principal verb also.

  • He does not use to come to my home now.
  • Does he Use to study in London?
  • He didn’t use to play chess when he was a child.
  • Used he to study in London?

III. USED TO ‘AS AN ADJECTIVE AS ACCUSTOMED OF/ FAMILIAR WITH’

The verbal use of USED TO should not be confused with the adjectival use of the same expression, meaning “familiar with/ accustomed of ” 

  • I have been used to the cold weather.
  • Santosh Yadav had been used to the icy weather of the Himalayas.
  • I don’t bother what she says now. I have been used to her irritating  behaviour

REMEMBER: 

When USED TO  is followed by a verb, it always takes gerund form.

He is used to smoking.

  • We are used to walking for miles. 
  • She has been used to shout aloud. 

Exercise - HOW MUCH YOU UNDERSTOOD ABOUT 'USE TO'

Read the following sentences carefully and tell in which form of  USE TO and WOULD have been used  , as a

Modal Verb, Principal Verb

or Accustomed of –

Two have been answered  for example-

a. Anjani use to visit my home daily.

   Answer: Modal

b. Deeksa is use to fighting with girls.

   Answer : accustomed with

c, Rishan would play hockey during his college days.

Answer:

d. Use Deepam visit your home often?

Answer:

e. She doesn’t use to tell lies.

Answer:

f. Has Diya been use to facing the challages of life ?

Answer:

g. Did Deepak use to come school at time ?

Answer:

h. Use she have 2 cups of coffee everyday ?

Answer :

I. I used to take meeting of my employees every Saturday when I worked in Bajaj Finance.

Answer:

j. I would have a walk on the river bank with my friend during my childhood days.

ANSWERS:

c. modal verb

d. modal verb 

e. principal verb

f. principal verb

g. principa verb 

modal verb

h. modal verb

i. modal verb 

j. modal verb

 

USE OF NEED

Need shows requirements/ necessities. Being a Semi Modal Verb, It is not only used as a Semi Modal Verb but also as a Principal Verb. In Tense ‘Need’ is used as a Principal/ Main Verb while in  Modals ‘ Need ‘ is used as a Modal Auxiliary Verb.

Now let’s learn one by one all the uses of Need.
A. USE OF NEED AS A PRINCIPAL VERB

In Tense ‘Need’ is used as a requirement/ necessity.

  • She does not need to worry about you.
  • I don’t need your help.
  • Does Vinita need your advice?

B. MODAL AUXILIARY VERB 
In Modals ‘ Need’ is used 
again as Necessity and Duty as well. 

  • You need not come here again.
  • You need visit your friend. He has lost his mother.
  • I needn’t more sheets to write.
  • Need I use this sentence to write in the application?

REMEMBER:

a. If NEED is followed by a Verb, it always takes TO (Infinitive to+v2).

B. If used as a Modal Auxiliary, it will never take TO,(will only take a bare Infinitive-(V1 without TO) as per the rules, Modal Auxiliary never takes Infinitive ( TO).

  • She does not need to come here. (Tense)
  • She needn’t come here. (MODAL)

c. In Tense as a Principal Verb, ‘need’ will add ‘s’ i.e. 5th form of NEED (needs)  if the sentence is in Present Indefinite

( Affirmative) when the subject is singular in number, and ‘ed’  (needed) will be added when the sentence is in Past Indefinite (Affirmative) but in Modals, there is no need to add

‘s’  or ‘ed’ with the VERB ‘need’ as there is no form of the MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS.

  • Disha needs more chocolates. (Tense)
  • Disha need more chocolates. (Modal)
  • Avni needed my help at that time. (Tense)
  • Avni didn’t need your help at that time. (Tense)

REMEMBER:

a. For framing the Past sentence of Need, we’ll have to take the help of Tense (Principal verb)as with modal framing past Tense with ‘need’ is not possible’.

The negative form didn’t need + to-infinitive normally refers to actions which were unnecessary and were not performed:

  •  Avni didn’t need your help as I was there for her.
  • Anshu needn’t fire crackers on New year’s eve. See, he has burnt his hand.

c. NEED as PERFECT INFINITIVE

Need+ have + V3
Often used in framing Negative Sentences. 
( something that was not required to do but had been done)

  • He need not have joined the camp this time. His exams are at hand.
  • Need he has lost his temper in such a crucial condition? Now see, he has spoiled his whole career.

d. Need while answering the questions
How to use while Answering a question 
Read the examples carefully-

  • Need he go there?

      No, he needn’t.

     Yes, he must 
If the answer is in the affirmative, the use of ‘ needn’t ‘ is required if the answer is positive use of ‘ must’ is compulsoryOER

EXERCISE : HOW MUCH YOU UNDERSTOOD ABOUT 'NEED'

Read the following sentences carefully and tell in which form of  NEED has been used in the following sentences:- 

(Principal Verb, Modal Auxiliary, Perfect Infinitive)

( Two have been done as examples_

a. You are an affluent personality.          You need help the poor.

Answer- Modal Auxiliary

c. Ridhim need not have gone the cinema today. See , he has lost his bike there.

Answer: 

d. Priya needs not worry about her future. She is a brilliant girl. 

Answer-

e. Need you visit your friend’s house today?

f. Akash didn’t need your notebook.

    He was only trying you, 

Answer- 

 g. Belinda need have secured good marks. The merit has gone very high. She can not get admission in a good school. 
Answer: 

ANSWER:

c. Perfect Infinitive

d. Principal Verb

e. Modal Auxiliary 

f. Principal Verb 

g. Perfect Infinitive

 

USE OF DARE

DARE EXPRESSES:

  • TRYING SOMETHING AGAINST ANYTHING/ANYONE’S WILL
  • THE BOLDNESS  OR COURAGE TO DO SOMETHING
  • TO BE AS BOLD AS

Like other Semi Modal Verbs, ‘Dare ‘ is used as a Modal 

Auxiliary verb and Principal Verb as well.

Let’s understand the different uses of dare stepwise-

A. USE OF DARE AS A PRINCIPAL VERB

She doesn’t dare to face me now.

She didn’t dare to visit my home.

Don’t dare to ask such a question from your teacher.

Jigyasu dares to face the tough baller.

B. USE OF DARE AS A MODAL AUXILIARY VERB

I dare not visit alone in the dense forest.

Dare not visit this place again.

Dare you take such a challenge?

REMEMBER: Like other Semi Modal Verbs Dare also can take Present, Past, and Past Participle forms of the verb but While using the same word as modal Auxiliary Verb, will never take any form as Modals never change the forms.

In the same way DARE if used as a Principal Verb , it will take infinitive(to+v1)

but when it is used a Modal verb it will not take infinitive. 

EXERCISE: HOW MUCH YOU UNDERSTOOD ABOUT 'DARE'

Read the following sentences carefully and tell in which form DARE is taking:-

( Principal Verb or Modal Auxiliary) 

a. Agatha dare not face the bitter truth of her life.

      Answer:

b. Garima dare not move to my home next time. 

      Answer: 

c. Dare Shubhangi visit my street next time?

      Answer:

d. Smita didn’t dare to see her report card as she knew the result. 

       Answer : 

e. Anuj dares to challenge Akhilesh.

    Answer:

f. Nikhil did not dare to look into her father’s eyes. 

ANSWERS

a. Modal Auxiliary

b. Modal Auxiliary

c. Modal Auxiliary

d. Principal Verb

e Principal Verb

f. Principal Verb

QUIZ

1. Hina didn’t ____jump off the high wall .

Correct! Wrong!

2. You____invite Jyotsana if she doesn’t wish to join.

Correct! Wrong!

3. Ruchi ___ know my address. I don’t wish to meet her.

Correct! Wrong!

4. Abhishek ______ show his teeth during the ongoing class everytime.

Correct! Wrong!

5. ______ Richa ask me such a question ?

Correct! Wrong!

6. Shruti ____ to pay attention on her studies. She seems diverting her my now a days.

Correct! Wrong!

7. Akash_____ remains silent in the class .

Correct! Wrong!

8. Vishal ______ to work harder than earlier to shine.

Correct! Wrong!

9. Srishti _____ ask questions from Saloni when she remained absent in school.

Correct! Wrong!

10. Akshat has been_____ irritating others.

Correct! Wrong!

11. Sneha ______ have a walk for half an hour everyday during lockdown. But now she can’t as the schools have been opened.

Correct! Wrong!

12. Aarti _____ visit the hospital during lockdown as she was appointed nurse there.

Correct! Wrong!

ANALYTICAL WRITING : HOW TO WRITE AN ANALYTICAL WRITING

The meaning of analytical is something ‘logical’ .i.e. the explanation of the meaning of something. So contrary to a simple paragraph ‘ analytical writing is ‘an interpretation of something’ i e. a paragraph that shows facts and figures from which conclusion may be drawn. Thus contrast to the simple paragraph analytical writing measures your-

a. Critical Thinking
b. Analytical Writing

c. Formation of complex ideas.

So in short, the students are required to summarize the data with a little bit of basic analysis.
( similarities or comparisons of the main trend )

The basic points to remember-
a.Word Limit
b. Good voca​​bulary
c. Avoid Grammatical Mistakes
d. No iirrelevantinformation
e. Functional Language
f. Avoid Grammatical mistakes
g. Employ appropriate vocabulary
( a little bit complex  idiomatic, and accurate)
g. Avoid spelling mistakes
h. Be clear and accurate
i. Synonyms instead of using the same words

Divide the para into 3 parts-

Introduction
Body
Conclusion

a. Introduction
Give a short detail about the topic, not more
than 1-2 lines.

b. Body
Elaborate on the topic with real facts and figures.
Comparisons against the trend

c. Conclusion
Summarize the pictorial graph in 2 to 3 lines

 

Sample

Based on sample  question paper provided by CBSE

Instructions for the beginner:-

First, try to prepare a rough draft then replace your vocabulary with better and rich vocabulary ,phrases and expressions. Try to solve questions and soon you will be habitual of writing in a better language.

For your convenience, I have prepared rough and final writing to make you understand ‘How to write Analytical Writing ‘ in a Proper way.

Golden words are written roughly

Blue colour words are replced with the rough ones.


Rought Draft

 

The bar graph shows clearly the year wise purchase of digital devices in Rishu Nagar from the year 2015  to 2019.

 
Since 2015 the increment in the purchase of computers and smartphone both is found rising . The Purchase from 2015 to 2017 is found increasing consistently. The uniformity in increments in 2017 is found consistent which brought profit of 80 crores in this year.Then the Purchase shows a sudden reduction in 2018. It reduced from 80 to 60 crore. I huge gap of reduction can be observed between 2017 to 2018 . Then graph shows a striking increment in the year 2019. The profit rose from 60 crore and purchase as well.
 
 The graph shows consistent growth from the year 2015 to 2019. However, in 2018 the purchase fell down a little. But brought consistent growth in the profit in the purchase of devices predicting the growth in the coming years in Rishu Nagar. 
 
  

Final Writing

The diagram shows the year wise profit and purchase of digital devices in Rishu Nagar across the year 2015- 2019.

 

Since 2015 the gradual growth was experienced in the purchase of both the devices. The purchase from 2015 to 2017 was consistent that added a dramatic profit of from 40 to 80 crore. In 2016 the devices added 20 crore profit which was 20 crore again . In comparison of 2015, the profit was added 40 crores more.

Then the Purchase shows a striking reduction in 2018 the profit when down the Purchase was produced with the loss of 20 crores in the year 2018 but the profit begins to rise again and touch the Zenith in 2019 again and with the highest purchase of the devices the profit was added 20 cr in comparison to 2018 and 80 cr as compared to 2015.

Thus the consistent growth from the year 2015 to 2019 with a little fluctuation in the year 2018 than a surprisingly steep in 2019 shows the unexpected growth in the Purchase and profit in the coming years

Questions for practice with some more tricks :COMING SOON 

TILL THEN KEEP ON VISITING THE SITE

HAPPY LEARNING ! 

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