LETTER WRITING: FORMAT OF INFORMAL LETTER: SAMPLE OF INFORMAL LETTER: HOW TO WRITE AN INFORMAL LETTER

LETTER WRITING

Letter writing is a very important means of staying in touch with our relatives,  with our friends, with our clients and colleagues as well. Though at present time this trend of writing an informal letter is almost lessening day by day which really had brought warmth in our relationships.  But with the advancement of technology in the field of communication if we notice
especially in the business sector and other official fields, this trend of writing letter is
still, in existence, this is the reason no board has removed this part of writing
section from any board either that is CBSE board, the state board, or the ICSE board. If we notice in the CBSE board syllabus of English, earlier we used
to have different writing parts like telegram writing, message writing, etc but all those things have been completely removed as we can notice almost nil usage of all these means of communication. 

But Letter Writing is still in existence. So I am going to explain to you the formats of different kinds of letters one by one in my upcoming lessons. So keep on visiting and learning different kinds of letters one by one.

So I am going to explain to you first the classification of letters and different terms of writing a letter that you will come across by
learning the formats of different kinds of letters. 

So depending upon the
relationship between the sender and the receiver a letter can be classified into two parts:-

  1. Formal letter
  2. Informal letter

A formal letter is also called
an official letter and an impersonal letter while an informal letter is also called a personal letter or an Inofficil letter.

INFORMAL LETTER

So Informal letter – as it is clear with the name only – it is written to our

  • dearest ones
  • to our friends 
  • to relatives

An informal letter is personal in nature. It should be written in a simple clear easy to understand natural and lively way like the way one friend or relative talks to another. we write a personal letter –

  • to express our feelings
  • to share our joys and sorrows to those of our loved ones
  • mark social and religious locations e.g. to the announcement of birth and engagement etc.
  • acknowledge and appreciate people in life to advise them
  • make complaints (do it politely)
  • make proposals and suggestions
  • send invitations replies to invitations and reminder

that is why the tone of such kinds of letters always remains informal.

FORMAL LETTER

Following are the categories under which a  Formal Letter falls :- 

  • to our communication on the official level
  • to government officials
  • business houses
  • customers
  • editors

That is why the tone of such kinds of letters must always be formal precise and to the point.  As the term itself indicates – a formal letter is written in a formal style i.e. the language and tone of the letter are formal, impersonal, objective but pleasant. Therefore no formal expressions greetings or contracted form forms of words are used . The language must be straight forward and to the point . It may be strongly worded but never impolite.

Informal Letters, we write only to our relatives or dearest one so there are
not many divisions of such kinds of letters while a Formal Letter – it is
divided in again different parts. So formal letter is again classified in
different parts –

  1. Editorial Letter
  2. Complaint Letter
  3. Business letters
  4. Job application
    these four parts are again classified into different parts that I explain to you
    when I’ll explain new formats of these all these kinds of letters. 

TERMS OF LETTER WRITING

Following are the terms that we need understand while learning the format of a Letter Writing:- 

  • Informal
  • Formal
  • Layout
  • Sender’s Address
  • Receiver’s Address
  • Date
  • Salutation
  • Body of Letter
  • Signature

 

  1. Formal: the style of writing – suitable for a personal/ a friendly letter
  2. Formal: the style of writing – suitable for official communications
  3. Layout: an arrangement of the text of a letter with a uniform left margin and paragraph
  4. Date: Information about the Day, Month, and Time on which the letter has been written
  5. Sender’s Address: Address of the one who is writing a letter
  6. Receiver’s Address: Address of the one who we are communicating with 
  7. Salutation: ( a customary address) A set of expressions of paying regard 
  8. Subject: a statement of the topic of a Formal Letteri.e. what is about 
  9. Body of the Letter: an appearance of the letter parted in different paragraphs with proper arrangement usually in 3 parts but may vary according to the given word limits with proper opening, description, and closing.
  10. Complimentary Close: phrasal expression of closing the letter 
  11. Name and Designation: Name and Signature with Desgination

FORMAT OF INFORMAL LETTER

Sender’s Address

__________________

__________________

 

Date: ( American/British Format)

 

Salutation

 

           Body

           

            of

 

          letter

 

 

 

   

Customary closing

 

Name

 

42Vishnupuri

 Mahatma Gandhi Marg

Jaisalmer , Rajasthan

 

15th January 2021

 

Dear Maa

 

Opening

 

Express yourself

 

Closing

 

Closing

 

 

Your loving daughter/son

xyz

(Secretary)

SAMPLE INFORMAL LETTER

 42Vishnupuri

 Mahatma Gandhi Marg

Jaisalmer , Rajasthan

 

15th January 2021

 

Dear Archie,

How are you doing? Hope you are doing well at your end. Many thanks for your letter and for the photographs.They brought back many happy memories of our holiday.


Indeed the time spent with you has ended up being one of the best I have had so far. 

The expedition to Rohtang long drives in the river beds and valleys in Leh, monasteries- all seem to be out of the world. India is as fascinating as or more than had expected. Your lively company just proved to be the icing on the cake.

 

I am glad to know that your school is going on well. It must have been difficult I guess after the holidays to come back to the rut of the school routine. Anyway, that too is very important, isn’t it?

 

Do let me know when you are planning to visit us I talk so much about you that my family is dying to see you what Joy it would be to see you have you Among us.

I guess I have got to be going. I am getting late for my weekly piano class.

catch you later 

Bye

DETERMINERS: USES KEY FEATURES: DEMONSTRATIVE:POSSESSIVES: QUIZZES


What is a Determiner ?

A determiner is a word that introduces a noun I.e. a word that tells something about a noun.

Example :
      It is my pen.
      I have some good Grammar books.  

Here SOME and MY, which are placed

before the nouns i.e. PEN and Books, are Determiners as they are pointing out the nouns that are placed just after them.

 

Key features of DETERMINERS-
So if we notice the following examples, we can find out some basic features of determiners.

 

1. A Determiner tells something about a noun.

2. They are always placed before a Noun.
3. They are placed before the Adjectives also that describe the nouns.


eg.

  •  Kashmir is called the Switzerland of India.
    Here Switzerland is not a Proper Noun but used as an Adjective for Kashmir.

4. While framing the questions of  determiner sentences, we find out that questions are framed only with either ‘ whose’,  ‘how many’ ‘how much’ or ‘which’

eg.   Que. Whose pen is this?
        Ans. This is my pen.
        Que. Which book is yours?
        Ans. That book is mine.

        Que. How many good Grammar books 

        are you having with you?
        Ans. I have some good Grammar books 

         with me.

 

1. Determiner is known as an ___________ also.

Correct! Wrong!

2. Determiner is a word that tells something about a ________

Correct! Wrong!

3. Determiner is always used ____ a noun.

Correct! Wrong!

4. Determiner is also used before the ______ that describes a noun.

Correct! Wrong!

5. The one who sleeps for long hours is often called as ‘the Kumbhakaran’. Here Kumbhakaran is –

Correct! Wrong!

6. Tell the Determiners in the following sentence- ” Those flowers in your garden are really very nice.”

Correct! Wrong!

Questions of Determiners can always be framed with-

Correct! Wrong!

Now there are total of four kinds of Determiners:

  1. Demonstratives
  2. Possessives(Possessive Adjective)
  3. Quantifiers
  4. Articles

Some Grammarian have divided them into six parts:-

  5. Interrogative ( only some interrogative words not every)

  6. Distributive

 

DEMONSTRATIVE

Demonstrative is a word that has been derived from the Latin word DEMONSTRARE that means to ‘show something clearly.

So in this way, we
can say that we can show someone or something clearly by pointing out so in short, we can say

” Demonstrative are the words
that point out the ones referred to.” We can say-

It talks about the things
by pointing out.

  • It talks about the
    person by pointing out.
  • It points out the things as proof.
  • It points out the ideas that are very close to your mind or in our distant memories.
  • This is the watch my mother gave me on my birthday.
  • That is the ring I was looking for.
  • Those are the boys who were disturbing the class.
  • These grapes are very sour. I can’t eat them.

So in short, demonstratives are the words
that talks about that show the things or persons by pointing out.
Now let’s check demonstrative in detail-
There are four kinds of Demonstrative-

  • This
  • That
  • These
  • Those

Now let’s check each kind of
demonstrative in detail –
THIS
THIS points out the things, persons or
ideas they are very close to us.

Example- This marker is mine.
(Means – The marker is very close to the person who is pointing it out.)
This book is not yours.
(Means marker is very close to the person who is pointing out.)
This idea is better than that one.
( This idea – the idea that is going on right now.)
Were you asking about this boy?
(Means the boy is very close to the speaker.)

In precise, we can notice that we are talking about the things
or ideas that are very close to us.

THAT

That talks about the things, persons, or ideas that are very far from us.

Example
That book is not mine.
(Means- The book is very far from the person who is pointing it out.)

That idea didn’t really work.
(Means- The idea is in the distant memory of the speaker)
My bag is better than that of yours.
(Means- The bag is very far from the person who is pointing it out.)
Your book is heavier than that of mine
(Means- The book is far from the speaker)

So we can simply say that the person, things, or ideas
that have been mentioned in the above sentences
are either far from the speaker or in his distant memories.

THESE-Plural of This

These talk about many persons, things, or ideas that
are very close to us.
Example

These grapes are very sour. I can’t eat them.
Where are you these days?
Can you suggest to me some more plans than these?

It is also very clear that THESE is the Pronoun/Demonstrative
actually talking about many things
persons or ideas that are very close to
the speaker.

THOSE- Plural of That

That talks about many things
many person things or ideas that area
little or very far from the speaker.

Example

Those clocks never give the correct time.
These plants are bigger than those.
Those ideas just really didn’t work.

So these are some usage of demonstratives.

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE

Possessive Adjective

Possessives – the word has been derived from the word POSSESSIONS meaning of which is TO OWE SOMETHING.

Thus “The person or thing that has right on anyone or anything is called Possessive.”

i.e. Possessives are the words that show to whom the thing or person belongs.

Possessive Adjective

“The words used before the nouns that show the ownership on something/someone are called Possessive Adjective.”

  • It is MY pen.

       This pen belongs to me.

  • is it YOUR water bottle 

       ( Does this bottle belong to you.

  • Where are THEIR notebooks?

      ( Where are the books belong to them?


Basic feature of Possessive

It is used in place of a noun.

 e.g. Whose pen is this?

      This is Ankit’s pen.

      Suppose Ankit is standing in front of you. 

      You will say by pointing out Anit that ” It is his pen.” 

      so here the word HIS has been replaced with the noun-Ankit.

Possessive Adjective is always used before the noun.

It informs us whom the things belong to.

It can be placed as a complement of the verb or as a Subjective case.

e.g. It is my purse. (Complement of a verb)

          

     My purse is on the table. (the subject of a verb)

A Possessive adjective is divided into Singular and Plural

Singular    

HIs- for a boy

Her- for a girl

your- II Person

Its- non-living/ideas

My- I Person

Plural- II Person

Our- I Person

Their- III Person

‘ You ‘  is used as a Singular and Plural also

A Possessive adjective is divided into Singular and Plural both:-

 

Singular    

My- First Person

HIs- for a boy

Her- for a girl

Your- II Person

Its- non-living/ideas

 

Plural

You- II Person

My- I Person

Our- I Person

Their- III Person


USE OF SHOULD MUST OUGHT TO: MODAL VERBS SHOWING DUTIES/OBLIGATIONS: QUIZ SHOULD : MUST: OUGHT TO: MODALS: PERFECT INFINITIVE MODALS: SHOULD HAVE MUST HAVE OUGHT TO HAVE USES AND DIFFERENCES

Light Advice

You should leave now, it is getting late.

Should I talk to him on this matter?

Possible Advice

You should be at your home right now.

Informal request

Should I leave now?

Should I also join you for the party?

Past of Shall

He asked me if I should meet him after office.

In Place of ‘IF’

Should he had been at my place,

he would not be able to solve this problem.

                                     Or

If he had been at my place,

he would not be able to solve this problem.

Lest + should

( shows worriedness) 

 Walk carefully lest you should fall. (right )

Walk carefully lest you should 

not fall.(wrong )

 

USE OF MUST

Moral duties/obligations

We must always speak the truth.

We must not tell a lie.

You must always help the poor.

Probability of  action

When you are having 99% surety of any action to happen

When I invited him to attend my birthday party,  he got very happy.

He must be excited to join it.

Necessity

We must awake early in the morning to keep ourselves fit and fine.

We must always keep ourselves up to date.

Must we use this word?

Must we really leave for Delhi right now?

Must we really use the marks while moving out of the home?

Prohibition

We must not cross the road when the light turns red.

Fixed Expected /Determination

She thinks like me she must be my friend.

The person taking a round of the school must be the Principal.

USE OF OUGHT TO

High moral duty/obligation

We ought to save our earth.

We ought to respect our motherland.

We ought to respect our parents.

Strong possibility

Kishan said that Nikhil ought to win the race as he had worked very hard.

Smita  said that he ought to leave this place in any condition

She thinks like me she must be my friend.

The person taking a round of the school must be the Principal.

Strong Prohibitions

You ought not to leave your car unlocked.

You ought not to call him at this time.  

Note:  Uses of Modals Auxiliary Verbs are always flexible. So understand the rules thoroughly and tap only the closer ones that are closer.  

 

 

 

What ____I do now?

Correct! Wrong!

______ we not listen to our elders ?

Correct! Wrong!

The preachers _______ follow the spiritual path first then preach others.

Correct! Wrong!

_______ it gets dark, I shall return in the morning.

Correct! Wrong!

Life is changing every moment . We_______ keep ourselves always up to date.

Correct! Wrong!

We ______ not go against our parents.

Correct! Wrong!

Paint carefully lest you ______spoils all your work.

Correct! Wrong!

Sneha asked me if I ______go with her for searching for her lost watch.

Correct! Wrong!

Ananya ___never tell lies.

Correct! Wrong!

_______ we follow his pieces of advise ?

Correct! Wrong!

We ____always respect out National emblems.

Correct! Wrong!

They are looking towards us consistently. They _____ be curios what we are doing.

Correct! Wrong!

You _______not leave the tap open. It is just wastage of water.

Correct! Wrong!

_____ I leave now ?

Correct! Wrong!

He has worked very hard. He ______ win this trophy this year.

Correct! Wrong!

SHOULD HAVE MUST HAVE OUGHT TO HAVE

Should have, Must have, Ought to have are all parts of Perfect Infinitive that show regret of any action that had not been done in the past or a strong possibility of any action based on facts referring to the past. But how they are different from one another let’s understand them one by one with different examples.

USE OF SHOULD HAVE

Should Have is used for showing repentance or regret in a general sense. In short, Should have shows something was the right to do but wasn’t done. Now there has left only regret.

Example:

  • It is no use in crying over spilled milk.I should have worked harder earlier for having a positive result. Now, there is no chance of filling in the form again.
  • I should have paid attention to my studies earlier.  Life never gives us the second chance.

USE OF OUGHT TO HAVE

‘Ought to have’ is also used in a sense of showing repentance or regret but it is used in some stronger sense i.e. ‘ought to’ leaves a deep sense of regret.

  • You ought to have checked all the papers before signing them Now, you have been left with nothing. All the property has been transferred to your younger brother.
 
Besides ‘ought to have ‘ is used in a sense of prohibition or warning also, showing the anger of the speaker, leaving  the listener with a feeling of repentance  
You ought to have asked my permission before using my mobile. I don’t like people touching my mobile.    

USE OF MUST HAVE

‘Must have’ is used in a sense of regret but with facts, figures or proofs.

  • I saw a child crying hardly in the fair. He must have lost his parents.
  • It was our last day in school,  you must have come.
  • The party was nice, you must have attended it.

Here we can notice the possibility of different actions is based on our direct experience, facts, or proof. Someone directly says , “the child crying hard”  then he concludes that his parents must have been lost that is why he is crying. In the same way in examples 2 and 3 ‘last school day’ and ‘attending a party \’ are two direct experiences of the speaker. So the use of ‘must-have’ will be more appropriate. 

REMEMBER

Remember ‘must have’ never  has the same meaning as ‘should have’. We use must have when we talk about a strong possibility based on facts referring to the past.

While ‘should have’ and  ‘must have’ show the regret but don’t have any proof that the work would have been done if they had done/they had not done some work earlier. But here in 

  ‘must have’ we can notice actions and repentance with proof

Exercise 

  1. You _______ have closed the door earlier. All the rainwater has been entered into the home.
  2. You ________ caught him red-handed. He has escaped himself very safely now.
  3. I found my best friend crying. She ______ failed.
  4. I _______ written the answers neatly. I might get good marks.
  5. Jennie is beating his brother hardly. He _____ done something wrong again
  6. Kavya’s money has been stolen from her drawer. She ________locked her drawer.  
  7. Divyam is crying hard. He ______ lost his bike.
  8. Jatin ___________ given his board examinations. He is not getting any good job now.
  9.  I ___________ seen the the papers before signing them. I have lost everything now.

  10. I ______ have gone with you. You have been injured worse. 

 

  1. Must have
  2. Ought to have
  3. Must have
  4. Should have
  5. Must have
  6. Ought to  have
  7. Must have
  8. Should have
  9. Ought to have
  10. Should have

USAGE OF MAY AND MIGHT: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MAY AND MIGHT: PROPER USE OF MAY AND MIGHT: SLIGHT OR SLIGHTEST POSSIBILITIES AUXILIARY VERBS MAY AND MIGHT

USES OF MAY

Contrary to ‘ Can ‘, May shows a slighter ,weaker or less possibility . May is used when there are less chances of the predictions to happen. Thus we use  May when chances of the incidents to be taken  place are less. Besides May shows the predictions ,wishes and request also. Thus following are the uses of May:-

 a. Slight/Less expected /possibility:

                    It may rain today.

                    The train may not be late.

 b. Formal Request:

                     May I use your pen?

                     May I come in?

 c. Probability of any action:

                     I can see dark clouds in the sky.

                     It may rain heavily today.

 d. Blessings/ Curse:

                    May you live long !

                    May you go to hell ! 

                    May you touch the

                    zenith of success !

                   May you meet to devils !

USES OF MIGHT

Might- Past of May- shows the slightest ,weakest or least possibility of any incident to be taken place in comparison of Can and May.

 a. Past Possibility-

           It’s good, you had arrived by the                          time. It might rain today.

( Suppose it is evening time and there was the slightest possibility of the arrival of rain. But now the time is over. So in such case, we‘ll use might.)

 b. Polite Request:

            Might I use your colours?

( Same as explained earlier in the usage of could, Might is also sometimes  used for making a request during awkward or embarrassing conditions/circumstances)

  c. Slightest/Least Possibility:

        He was reluctant to attend the party.

       Still, we must wait for some time.

       He might be on the way.

 d. So that _ Might-
With so that, we always use might.
         I work hard so that I might 

         succeed in my life.
         She is improving her handwriting 

         that she might secure good percentage in the examinations.

5. Whether/if

with ‘whether’ or ‘if’ we always use Might

I doubt whether he migth return.

I wonder if she might survive.

 

Difference between May and Might

The basic difference between May and Might depends on the possibility of the prediction or upcoming action. If the possibility is strong, the use of May is preferable. If the possibility is weak, the use of Might is suggested for conveying the idea in a better way.

Stronger Possibility :
I can see huge dark clouds in the sky.
It may rain today.

She was looking happy when I invited her to the party.

She may join us soon.
Weaker Possibility: 
I can see some clouds in the sky.
It might rain today.

She showed no interest when I invited her to the party.

Still we must wait. She might join us.

Difference among Can MAy and Could

Read the following sentences carefully:-

  • Anita has been working hard since the last seven months to win race in the Annual Sports Day of the school. So she can win the race.
  •  Anita has been working hard since the last seven months to win the race on the Annual Sports Day of the school. But her foot had been injured a little yesterday. She may win this race if she gets proper treatment at the time.
  • Anita has been working hard since the last seven months to win the race on the Annual Sports Day of the school. But she had met with an accident before two days while crossing the road. She might win the race if she gets proper treatment and does not lose her will power.

Thus in condition 1- there is a 99% expectation of winning the race as Anita has worked hard, the whole of the seven months.
So the use of Can is correct here.

 

Condition 2- Though Anita has worked hard, she has injured herself. Now, if she gets treatment at the correct time and gets fit and fine, there are some chances of her winning the race.

Condition 3- Anita is badly injured. Now it is only a better treatment and her willpower that may help her to win the race. So chances are least. That is why the use of Might will be correct here. So these are  some thin line differences among the use of can , may and might.

QUIZ : MAY vs MIGHT

____ you always be happy !

Correct! Wrong!

_______ I use your phone please? It’s urgent ,I have forgotten mine at home.

Correct! Wrong!

Arpita reported that she ______ not join the party .

Correct! Wrong!

It ____ be very expensive, but it’s much better than the others.

Correct! Wrong!

Ankit tells Richa that she ____ be late today.

Correct! Wrong!

I was just wondering whether you ____ be able to help me.

Correct! Wrong!

Might shows:-

Correct! Wrong!

He has broken his leg. He _____ win the race.

Correct! Wrong!

He is suffering from high fever. He _____ take the exam today. Still we must wait for him sometime before catching the bus.

Correct! Wrong!

The farmer is working hard on his field so that he _______ have a good crop this year.

Correct! Wrong!

MAY vs MIGHT
Your Score

Share your Results:

 

USES OF WOULD

a. As the Past of Will

Will is used as a PAST TENSE of will often

 In a direct speech

indirect speech

He asked Nisha if she would like to join the party with him.

b. For making offers

what would you like to have, tea or coffee?

which can we do prefer, blue or red?

c. For making the formal or informal request –
Would you tell me the way to the hotel?
Would you pass me that spoon, please?

d.  For showing your preference

I would rather die than beg.

I would prefer to die to beg.

e. For showing Determination
I would support you come what may.
f. To Express Probability
Ankur would be back by 5 pm.
g. Condition impossible
If I were a magician, I would turn you into a rat.

h. For showing temporary past habits
I would visit the Taj daily when I lived in Agra.

Note – For showing permanent past habits, we use ‘Used to ‘

but for showing temperory Past hapbits ,we use would

I used to do teach in SNVP when I lived in Meerut. 

(Permanent habit )

I would visit Cinemax every Sunday when I lived in Meerut.

( Temporary habit )

i. For showing attitude –
I would not listen to anyone now.
She would soon show her attitude.

Exercise :WOULD

Understand how ‘ would ‘ can be used in different ways by filling in this exercise:-
 
a. What _____you like to have in breakfast?
b. Where _____you like to visit in this Summer?
c. I _____visit the river bank in the evening daily when I was a child .
d. _____ you please inform the Principal Sir that I wish to meet him. 
e. If she were a butterfly, I _______ catch her.
f. She has been very selfish now. She ______not join our party now.
g. She asked Vani if she ________join the school the next day. 

USAGE OF CAN AND COULD: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CAN AND COULD :

USE OF CAN

In simple words if we notice , use of ‘can’ shows speaker’s physical or mental power.or strength. So  instead of trapping yourselves much in the gust of uncountable rules, try to understand the main concept. Still if you don’t’ want to be left with  any kind of confusion ,the detailed usage of ‘can’ be simply shown in the following ways :-

a. Strength :

     I can open this box.

     You can not touch the height of this roof.

     Can you open the jammed doors of

     this window ?

     You can not run right not. You are looking very frail.

b. Ability:

      I can secure the highest % in my class.

      You can not clear this tough exam.

      So don’t waste your time.

      Can you crack this exam this year ?

c. 100% Possibility / Impossibility: 

          He can run fast but he doesn’t wish

          to participate in the race.

          He can never fail in his mission.

         Can the sun ever set in the east ?

d. Nature:

           She can be an honest girls.

           He can never cheat on me.

           Can’t you have faith on me ?

           You can not be unfaithful to him.

e. Informal Request : 

           Can I use your pen please ?

           Can you give me your notes for

           day ,please?

           Can you pass me that salt ?

f. Permission: 

           Yes, You can use my pen.

           No, You can’t use my pen.

          I can not permit him to go alone.

e.Offer :

           Can I help you to unload the cart ?

           Can I help you completing  your 

           project ?  

           You can take my help if you wish.

          

USE OF COULD

Use of Could – Past of Can – shows the speaker’s physical or mental strength that he/she had at a time in the past. Besides, it has some special usage as well that don’t indicate any past activity. So, let’s study step by step and discover how ‘could’ helps to express the mood of the speaker through words. 

 a. Strength:

                      I could run fast when

                      I was a child.

                      You could not write fast

                      when you were in grade 2nd.

                      Could you swim well when

                      you were in school?

                      You could not win that race because

                      you had not practiced well.

 b. Ability:    

                    I could also secure the highest 

                    % in my class if I had not broken my health.

                    You could deal with the coming problem well.

                    Could you play tennis so well at your initial learning stage?

 c.100% Possibility / Impossibility:

                   He could run fast but he wasted all his time looking at others.

                   He could never fail in his mission.

                   could you really not come?

 d. Nature:

                   She could not betray me but she did this time under others’ influence.

                    He could never laugh at me but now he has been changed a lot.

                  Couldn’t you have a bit of faith in me and wait for me?

                  You can not be unfaithful to him.

 e. Polite Request:

                  Could I use your pen, please?

                  Could you shift a little, please?

                  Could I also join you for this competition?

 f. Suggestions:

                   Could you help me in raising the fund for the Flood Relief Fund?

                   Could you help me with decorating the bulletin board?

                  After all this time our house has to win. 

 g. The past form of ‘can’ :

                  He told me that he could not attend the party the previous day.

                  He asked me if he could also go with me.

 h. Expected Past Possibility:-

Could is also used when we think about any past condition that is now not in our hand to change. But we expect they could have changed if we had been alert enough. Such kinds of sentences often are found in the fourth kind of Conditional Sentences. 

(Condition Impossible). The structure of which goes like

Past Perfect+,+Future Perfect ( perfect infinitive) 

Thus if we have to show the past possibility of strength, capability, capacity and a prediction that is completely out of our hands, the structure will be like 

Past Perfect+,+ Perfect Infinitive( could have, should have)

Note:
The perfect infinitive is made by prefixing the infinitive of the auxiliary verb HAVE to the past participle such as- to have lived, to have taught, could have taught, should have taught, might have stayed.

Eg. If I had filled in the form, I could have also cracked this exam.

       You could also have secured the highest percentage in the 

       class if you had studied well.

        If you had followed my advise, you could also have won this race.

                   

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CAN & COULD

a.Can shows the strength, possibilities, abilities, nature in Present Tense.

       I can Swim fast now.

While ‘ could’  shows the strength possibilities, abilities, nature in Past Tense.       

    I could swim fast when I was a child. 

 b.

‘Can’ shows the informal request-

Suppose  you ask your brother-

Can I use your watch, please ?”

You are not very much anxious, he permits you or not and you take it. Because you know 

that he is your brother and he will not mind at all.

‘Could’ shows a polite request:-

But  ‘Could’ is used in a sense of very polite request when you are trapped in such a condition when you feel almost embarrassed to ask help from someone but you have to anyhow. For example – If you go to the bank and forget to take your pen and now you need it urgently so when you ask for a pen from a stranger, obviously you’ll feel embarrassed and shy. So in such condition when you are asking for help, you’ll use ‘ could’.

      ” Could I use your pen, please?”

 

 c.

 At times, we use can for the present. But sometimes we use can when we make present decisions about future ability.

 

Can you help me with my project? (present)

Sorry, I am leaving for Mumbai today. But I can help you next month. (future)

 

We often use could for the past. But sometimes we

use could when we make a present polite request as mentioned earlier.

Could I use your mobile, please?

Could I use your colours please ?

QUIZ CAN vs COULD

1. Akshat____swim fast when he lived in Haridwar.

Correct! Wrong!

2. Just wait . I ____ finish my work within the given time limit.

Correct! Wrong!

3. ______ you please provide me 100 rs change,sir ?I had to leave for the station in a hurry.

Correct! Wrong!

4. ____ you shift a little please, my dear friend ?

Correct! Wrong!

5. I am afraid, I ______ play anymore. I am a lot of tired.

Correct! Wrong!

6. Why didn’t you participate ? You ______ won the race.

Correct! Wrong!

7. I went to every drugstore, but I ______ the medicine.

Correct! Wrong!

8. Oh, great ! You have cooked the complete dinner. ____ I help you to make chapatis ?

Correct! Wrong!

9. If I had listened to my teachers, I ______ led a happy life today.

Correct! Wrong!

10. I ______ solve this problem very easily.

Correct! Wrong!

MODAL AUXILIARY RULES: INTRODUCTION: MODALS MISTAKES TO AVOID: MODALS BASIC POINTS TO REMEMBER: WHAT NOT TO USE WITH MODALS

MODAL AUXILIARY VERB MODAL VERBS SEMI MODAL VERBS


What is a Modal Verb ?

Before having insight on Modal Auxiliary Verb, let’s dive deeper and understand the meaning of the word  Modal.

 

Modal  is a word that has been derived from Latin language that means- MOOD.

In Medieval Latin, it was called Modalis-means- pertaining to the mode. Then in Old Latin, it was known as Modus- means- extent /quantity .In Late Latin finally, it came to be known as Modal- means Mood.

 

To sum up, with the late Latin meaning of Modals, we can clearly say that Modal  Auxiliary shows the mood of the speaker while giving words to his emotions.  

Now, Let’s go back a little and have a look at the kinds of verbs first. 

 

Verb

There are basically 3 kinds of verbs:-

Action Verbs

Linking Verbs

Auxiliary Verbs

Auxiliary verb is again subdivided in 3 parts:-

Primary Auxiliary- To be, To have, Todo

Modal Auxiliary – can, could, may, might, will, shall, would should, must, ought to,

Semi Auxiliary- need,  dare, use to

Now to return as mentioned earlier Modal Auxiliary verbs are the verbs that show the mood of the speaker like it shows the capabilities, abilities, possibilities, intention, and nature of the speaker. 

 


What are the semi Modals?

Now question may arise in your mind ,

       ” What is a Semi-modal ?

Need, Dare, and Use to are counted in Semi Modal actually. They are called Semi Modal because these are the verbs that work not only as helping verbs but Main Verbs as well.

   Eg.  You need not waste your

           time here anymore. ( Modal Aux.)

           You don’t need to wate your

            time here anymore. ( Main Verb)

            He dare not touch 

            my laptop.( Modal Aux.)

           He does not dare to touch 

            my laptop. ( Main Verb)

Now before proceeding ahead and learning the different usage of Modals,

we must keep in mind the basic points to remember

and mistakes that we need to avoid while learning the correct usage of Modals.

 

COMMON POINTS TO REMEMBER WHILE USING MODAL AUXILIARY

 a. When you have a verb directly after modal        auxiliary, always use v1-

      ( Sub + Modal + v1 )

 eg.

     I can to play Tennis. ( wrong )

     I can play tennis. (right)

  b. In Passive voice, always use-

               ( Be+v3 )

 eg.

        The rules of the road must

        followed by everyone. ( wrong)

        The rules of the road must be

        followed by everyone. (right)

 c. If we have ‘perfect infinitive’ after modal, always use v3

            ( would have/should have/

             could have/must have+ v3 )

Note:

The perfect infinitive is structured by prefixing the 

infinitive of the auxiliary verb HAVE  to the past 

participle such as- to have lived, to have taught, 

could have taught, should have taught,

Might have stayed.

  eg.

           You must have attend

           the party. ( wrong )

           You must have attended

           the party yesterday. ( right )

  d. Modal always take Bare Infinitive so

      never  use ‘to’ after a modal.

            ( except semi modal ‘use to’)

 eg.

      I can to break it. ( wrong)

      I can break it. ( right)

      I use have a cup of tea

      twice a day. (wrong)

      I use to have a cup of day

      twice a day. ( right)

  e. In negative sentences, use

      directly NOT after modal auxiliary.

      (Remember it never takes any tense     

        helping verb except Semi modal )

eg.

         Antima does not can lift this

         heavy bag. ( wrong )

         Antima can not lift this

         heavy bag. ( right )

Thus13 are the modals total in number-

         10 Modals +3 Semi Modals

LIST OF MODALS

MODALS

Can

Could

May

Might 

Will

Shall 

Would 

Should

Must

Ought to

SEMI MODALS

 

 

Need

Dare

Use to

 

 

 

 

 

QUIZ MODAL AUXILIARY

Learn with Video and Check your Understanding

Modal is a word derived from a Latin word means

Correct! Wrong!

Modal auxiliary verbs show

Correct! Wrong!

There are basically ____ kinds of verbs

Correct! Wrong!

The other name of the helping verb is

Correct! Wrong!

To be, to have, to do -are parts of

Correct! Wrong!

Semi Auxiliary is a part of ______ verbs

Correct! Wrong!

Need, Dare and Use to are parts of

Correct! Wrong!

After Modal Auxilary Verbs , We use

Correct! Wrong!

Which is the correct sentence ?

Correct! Wrong!

Modal Auxiliary always takes

Correct! Wrong!

Tap the correct sentences

Correct! Wrong!

There are ____kinds of Semi-modals

Correct! Wrong!

LITERARY DEVICES POETIC DEVICES LITERARY ELEMENTS FIGURE OF SPEECH

Literary Devices

Literary Devices are the technique that a writer uses to expresses his ideas in a more elaborated way to enhance their writings.

  1. Simile 

A simile a comparison between two objects of different kinds which have at least one point in common. It draws a resemblance with the words like- ‘ as’ ‘like’ and ‘so’.

Example:-

1. Hritik is as brave as a Lion.

2. The moon is broken like a Mirror.

3. It dropped as a gentle rain from heaven.

4. The night is as dark as a black stone.

2. Metaphor

 A metaphor is an implied simile. It is used to make a comparison between two objects of different kinds but does have something in common. The words of resemblance ‘as’ ‘like’ or ‘so’ are not used here.

Examples 

1.The camel is a ship of the desert.

2.Kalidas is the Shakespeare of India.

3. Friendship is a sheltering tree.

4. The paper seeming boy with rats Eyes.

Difference between simile and metaphor

In Simile two objects are compared on the basis of quality 

while in Metaphor both the objects are assumed as same.

3. Personification

In personification lifeless objects, ideas or animals are given human attributes.

or

In personification lifeless objects and abstract ideas are thought of as having a life.

Examples 

Opportunity knocks at the door but once.

The trees inside are moving out into the forest.

Anxiety was sitting on her face.

Love is blind.

4. Apostrophe 

 An apostrophe is a direct address to that to the absent or a personal fight object.

Example

 Oh, death come soon!

Oh , freedom ! Why are you so dear.

 Difference between personification and apostrophe 

In personification, we assume lifeless objects or ideas as having a life.

 5. Alliteration 

Alliteration is the repetition of a consonant sound in

 a sequence of words to give a musical effect to enhance the beauty of our writing.

 Examples 

 Sally sells seashells by the seashore.

 Now in memories comes my mother

 I stand and I look I stand and look at them long and long 

 Locked in a concrete cell.

 6. Assonance 

Assonance is a repetition of a vowel sound across words 

within the lines of the poem creating internal rhyme/rhythm.

 Example –

a. A stitch in time saves nine.

b. Honesty is the best policy.

c. Sally sells seashells by the seashore.

 7. Repetition

 A Repetition is the repetition of words, phrases, sentences or sometimes a complete is stanza to highlight some particular part in our writing to make the idea clearer and memorable.

 Example:-

a. Rain Rain Go Away!

b. Balinda tickles him, she tickles him unmercifully.

c. Pistol in his left-hand pistol in his right hand.

8. Anaphora

Anaphora is a poetic device in which the writer repeats the same beginning in the form of same words, same phrases or with the same complete line chiefly with a purpose of emphasizing the repetition of elements to bring them in writing.

 Example

They do not sweat and whine about their condition 

They do not lie awake in the dark and weep for their sins.

They do not make me sick discussing their duty to God 

Not one is dissatisfied known ;not one is demanted 

With the Mania of living things

The difference among Alliteration, Assonance, Repetition and Anaphora 

Alliteration- repetition of consonant sound 

Assonance – a repetition of vowel sound 

Repetitiona repetition of words, phrases or sentences

Anaphora –  a repetition of the beginning of any sentences with the same word Phrases.

Onomatopoeia-Onomatopoeia is a poetic device in which the Sound suggests the meaning.

Examples 

a. I Babble on the Pebble.

b. I chatter chatter as a flow

c. Cuckoo coo

 9. Hyperbole

 In hyperbole, things are shown as greater or less, better or worse than they really are.

  Example

a. She wept ocean of tears.

b. Rivers of blood flowed in the battle.

c. I have not seen him for ages.

d. I saw ten thousand in a glance.

 10. Oxymoron

  An oxymoron, two opposite qualities are added to the same thing.

Example 

a. Life is bitter sweet.

b. It is an open secret. 

c. He is regularly irregular.

d. And having nothing he hath all.

 11. Enjambment 

It is a literary device in which a line carries the idea onto the next line without the usage of any punctuation mark at the end of each line and the thought ends at the line which meets with the punctuation mark ( often full stop.)

 Example

 The tree inside is moving out into the forest

The forests that were empty all these days

Where no bird could sit no insect hide

 no sun bury its feet in Shadow 

the forests that were empty all night 

will be full of trees for warning

 12. Transferred epithet

A transferred epithet is a poetic device in which an adjective is used not with the noun which it normally qualifies but with some other nouns.

 Example

 I passed Sleepless Night yesterday.

I met with the lovely rose yesterday.

The few steps of his cage on pets of velvet quiet in his quiet rage.

QUIZ LITERARY DEVICES POETIC DEVICES
LITERARY ELEMENTS FIGURE OF SPEECH

[ays_quiz id=’3′]

PRACTICE WTH SOME MORE EXERCISES

  1. Mercy drops from heart as gentle rain from Heaven.
  2. Rise, like a fountain for me day and night.
  3. He is a man of iron will.
  4. The news was a dagger to his heart.
  5. I just heard the mew of the cat.
  6. Life is a tale told by an idiot.
  7. His language is sweet like honey.
  8. He could take mountains of meat and oceans of teas.
  9. Roll on! thou deep and dark blue ocean roll!
  10. Sweet Thames! Run swiftly till I end my song.
  11. I am the daughter of earth and water.
  12. Sweet bitter tears flowed from my eyes.
  13. Truth sits upon the lips of a dying man.
  14. She accepts the kind cruelty of a doctor’s knife.
  15. I heard the lake lapping with the low sound.

ANSWERS

  1. 1. Simile
  2. 2. Simile
  3. 3. Metaphor
  4. 4. metaphor
  5. 5. Onomatopoeia
  6. 6. Metaphor
  7. 7. Simile
  8. 8. Hyperbole
  9. 9. Apostrophe
  10. 10. apostrophe
  11. 11. Personification
  12. 12. Oxymoron
  13. 13. Personification
  14. 14. Oxymoron
  15. 15. Onomatopoeia

Reported Speech: Question-based on CBSE Board Class X CBSE BOARD EXAM 2020 21 BASED QUESTIONS

LEARN WITH VIDEO

Read the following conversation and then report what was said by completing the following passage:-

A. A CONVERSATION BETWEEN A LADY SALES CLERK AND A PERSON NAMED HARISH

Harish: Please give me a postal stamp for the letter I want to send to the next village.
Sales Clerk: Here you are sir. That will cost rs 5/

Harish: but you charged me rupees 5/- yesterday for a letter to Bengaluru and this is only a short distance away.

Sales clerk: It is the rule, sir. Every envelope should have a stamp worth rs 5/-
Harish: I think you are cheating me. I will go to another post office.

Harish went to a post office and (a)______to send to the next village. (b) She gave him one and said that it (c)_______ Harish protested that (d) ______ for a letter to Bengaluru and that was only a short distance away. The clerk politely explained that(e)________and told him that(f)___. Harish retorted that (f)________ to another post office.

Tick the correct answer

a. (i) requested the sales clerk to give her a postal stamp for the letter he wanted

(ii) said the sales clerk to give him a postal stamp for the letter he wanted

(iii) requested the sales clerk to give him a postal stamp for the letter he wants

(iv) requested the sales clerk to give him a postal stamp for the letter he wanted

B. (I) Will cost at 5 rs/

(ii) would cost at 5 rs/

(iii) will costed at 5 rs/

(iv) would costed at 5 rs/

c. (i) she had charged him rs 5/

(ii) she has charged him rs 5/

(iii) she had charged him rs 5/

(iv) she would have charged him rs 5/

d. (i) she is cheating him so he would go

(ii) she was cheating him so he would go

(iii) she was cheating him so he will go

(iv) she had been cheating him so he would go

ANSWER:

Harish went to a post office and (a)requested the sales clerk to give him a postal stamp for the letter he wanted to send to the next village. (b) She gave him one and said that it (c)would cost rs 5/ Harish protested that (d) she had charged him rs 5/ for a letter to Bengaluru and that was only a short distance away. The clerk politely explained (e)that it was a rule and told him that(f) every envelope should have a stamp worth rs 5/-Harish retorted that she was cheating him so he would go to another post office.

B. A conversation between a master and his servant of a restaurant

Mr. Gill: You did an excellent job today.
Golu: Is it good enough to get the Chilli Paneer award?
Mr. Gill: There is no such thing as Chilli Paneer Award.
Golu: Then can I have just Chilli Paneer with ten stuff parathas?

Mr. Gill was pleased today with the sincerity at the cleaning job of his servant.
So he applauded him and said (a) ______an excellent job that day. . Happy. Golu wanted to know (b)________ to get Chili Paneer award? Confused Golu remarked that(c) _________________ as the Chili Paneer Award. At this Golu quipped asking (d)_______________with ten stuff parathas.

Tick the correct answers

a. (i) he has done

(ii) he had done

(iii) he was done

(ic) he did

b. (i)if it is good enough

(ii) if it had been good enough

(iii) if it were good enough

(iv) if it was good

c. (i) there is no such thing

(ii) there was no such thing

(iii) there had been no such thing

(iv) there has been n such thing

d. (i) if he could have just Chili Paneer

(ii) if he can have just Chili Paneer

(iii) if he can had just Chili Paneer

(iv) if he may have just Chili Paneer

ANSWER

Mr. Gill was pleased today with the sincerity at the cleaning job of his servant.
So he applauded him and said (a)he had done an excellent job that day. . Happy. Golu wanted to know (b)if it was good enough to get Chili Paneer award? Confused Golu remarked that(c)there was no such thing as the Chili Paneer Award. At this Golu quipped asking (d)if he could have just Chili Paneer with ten stuff parathas.

c. A CONVERSATION BETWEEN A DAUGHTER AND HER FATHER

Father : Baby , if you stop watching TV,I will give you

five hundred rupees

Daughter : Then I will stop watching TV.

Father: Good girl.

Daughter : With your five hundred rupees I can watch

several movies.

Upset with daughter’s addiction to TV her father decided to wean her away from it.

He promised that (a)_______five hundred rupees if she shopped watching TV.

The prospect of making five hundred rupees had its due effect his daughter for she

immediately replied that ( b) ______watching TV if she got the money.

Quite happy that his trick had worked , the father appreciated her saying

that (c) ________. But the very next moment he was

shocked to hear his daughter’s words that ____ watch several movies.

Tick the correct answer

a. (i) he will give her

(ii) he would give him

(iii) he would give her

(iv) he would have given her

b. (i)she would stop

(ii) she will stop

(iii) she would be stopped

(iv) she will be stopped

c. (i) you are a good girl

(ii) she is a good girl

(iii) you were a good girl

(iv) she was a good girl

d. (i) with his five hundred rupees she would

(ii) with her five hundred rupees she could

(iii) with his five hundred rupees she could

(iv) with his five hundred rupees she can

ANSWER

Upset with daughter’s addiction to TV her father decided to wean her away from it.

He promised that (a) he would give her five hundred rupees if she shopped watching

TV. The prospect of making five hundred rupees had its due effect his daughter

for she immediately replied that ( b) she would stop watching TV if she got the

money .Quite happy that his trick had worked , the father appreciated her saying

that (c)she was a good girl. But the very next moment he was

shocked to hear his daughter’s words that with his five hundred rupees she could

watch several movies.

SOLUTION : REPORTED SPEECH EXERCISES

Exercise 1.

a. I Radha says ,” Tapan is a nice boy.”

a. Radha says that Tapan is a nice boy.

b. Ankita says , ” They enjoyed the game.”

b. Ankita says that they enjoyed the game .

c. “I can’t beat you.” says Abhimanyu to Arjuna.

c. Abhimanyu tells Arjun that he can’t beat him.

d. The teacher will say, ” These boys never complete their work.”

d. The teacher will say that those boys never complete their work.

e. Ahana will be saying, ” I met with my best friend here Last year.”

e. Ahana will be saying that she met her best friend there the previous year.

f. Samridhi tells Sukriti ,”Amrita will be playing chess at this time tomorrow.”

f. Samridhi tells Sukriti that Amrita will be playing chess at that time the next day.

g. “If you can not assist me”, says Pushpendra to his friend ” I will not be able to listen

to you in future.”

g. Pushpendra tells his friend if he can not assist him, he will not be able to

listen to him in future.

Exercise 2

a. Richard said, “Julia is writing a letter.”
a. Richard said that Julia was writing a letter.
b. Ananya said to me, “He swims very well.”
b. Ananya told me that he swam very well.
c. The sage said,” God loves all .”
c. The sage said that God loves all.
d. “ Ananya has been writing a poem since the last two hours,” said Disha to Nisha.
d. Disha told Nisha that Ananya had been writing a poem since the previous two hours.
e. The musician said, “True music pours out from the hearts naturally.”
e. The musician said that true music pours out from the heart naturally.
f. Divya said, “ God saves those who save themselves.”
f. Divya said that God saves those who save themselves.
g. He said, “ Angel has completed her work.”
g. He said that Angel had completed her work.
h. Ritvik said to me, “I shall leave for Vijayanagar soon.”
h. Ritvik told me that he would leave for Vijaynagar soon.
i. “Cynthia is the Moon goddess according to Greek mythology,” told the teacher to her students.
i. The teacher told her students that Cynthia is the moon goddess according to Greek mythology.

j.“Nikita,” said Ashu to Gazala, “had not met with her sister yet.”
j. Anshu told Ganzala that Nikita had not met her sister yet.

Exercise 3.

a. He said to me, “ I have finished my work.”
a. He told me that he had finished his work.
b. Shikha said to Sunita, “ You must not hurt yourself.”
b. Shikha told Sunita that she must not hurt herself.
c. Garima said to Gita,“ She enjoyed her holidays well.”
c. Garima told Gita that she had enjoyed her holidays well.
d. Divyansh said, “You are honest.”
d. Divyansh said that he/she/I was honest.
e. Divya said, “She must not waste her time.”
e. Divya said that she must not waste her time.
f. Deepak said to me, “ You should meet me tomorrow.”
f. Deepak told me that I should meet him the next day.
g.He said to me, “ I will return your notes tomorrow.”
g. He reported to me that he would return his notes the next day.
h. The teacher said, “ You always come late, Bhawna.”
h. The teacher told Bhawna that she always comes late.
i. Deeksha said to me, “ You did not wait for me yesterday.”
i. Deeksha told me that I had not waited for her the previous day.
j Akriti said to Rachna, “I can not talk to you anymore.”
j Akriti told Rachna that she could not talk to her anymore.

Exercise 4 (A)

a. Ankush said to Nisha, “ Are you not feeling well here? ”
a. Ankush asked Nisha if she was not feeling well there.
b. You said to Arunima, “ Will you lend me your pen?”
b. You asked Arunima if she would lend you her pen.
c. Sheetal said to Akshat, “ Did you meet Akash yesterday ?”

Sheetal asked Akshat if he had met Akash the previous day.
c. Anshuman said to Pratibha, “ Had you seen this movie before?”

c. Anshuman asked Akshat if he had seen that movies ago.
d. Aditi said, “ Didn’t you look into the matter deeply?”
d. Aditi asked if she/ he/ I hadn’t looked into the matter deeply.
e. She said to Saumya,” May I use your pen for some time?”
e. She asked Saumya if she might use her pen for some time.
f. Nishi said to Rachna, “ Won’t you like to have a cup of coffee with me?
f. Nishi asked Rachna if she won’t like to have a cup of coffee with her.
g. Divya said to Shivam, “ Did Naman come to meet you yesterday ?”
g. Divya asked Shivam if Naman had come to meet him the previous day.
h. Raunak said to Abhishek, “ Have you seen Sagar anywhere ?”
h. Raunak asked Abhishek if he had seen Sagar anywhere.

i Ankush said to me , “Can you spare some time for me?”

i. Ankush asked me if I could spare some time for him.

Exercise 4 (B)

a. Babita said, “When are you going to meet me?
a. Babita asked when I was going to meet her.
b. Sneha said to Pakhi, “Why are you so worried?”
b. Sneha asked Pakhi why she was so worried.
c. Bhumi said to Anku, “How many pencils did she buy last week?”
c. Bhumi asked Anku how many pencils she had bought the previous week.
d. Priyanshu said to Kesri, “Why are you teasing your friend?”
d. Priyanshu asked Kesri why he was testing his friend.
e. Kainat said to Saloni, “Why hadn’t you complete your work till now ?”
e. Kainat asked Saloni why she hadn’t completed her work till then.
f. “Where is my mobile ?” said Nidhi to Khushi.
f. Nidhi asked Khushi where her mobile was.
g. Abhishek said to Rahul, “Whose book was Ayush asking for ?”
g.Abhishek told Rahul whose book Ayush had been asking for.
h.Manas said to Rahim, “Which watch are you asking for?”
h. Manas asked Rahim which watch he was asking for.
i. “How are you ?” asked Riya.
i. Riya enquired about how she was.
j. Ridhim said to Ridhima, “How have you done so toughest task ?”
j. Ridhim asked Ridhima how she had done so toughest task.

Exercise 5

a. My friend said to me, ” Do what you wish .”
a. My friend advised me to do what I wished.
b. The doctor said to the patient, ” Have a walk early in the morning daily.”
b. The doctor advised the patient to have a walk early in the morning.
c. The officer said to the guard, ” Lock the gate sharp at 6 pm.”
c. The officer ordered the guard to lock the gate sharp at 6 pm.
d. ” Have patience and keep on practicing.”, said Saba to Zeenat
d. Zeenat advised Saba to have patience and keep on practicing.
e. Dhruv said, ” Get out of my room and don’t show me your face again.”
e. Dhruv ordered to get out of his room and not to show his face again.
f. Nikhil said to Ravita, ” Never waste your energy in such a tedious task.”
f. Nikhil advised Ravita never to waste her energy on such a tedious task.
g. ” Could you help me to complete this project?” Jaya said to Nisha.
Hint: Remember -It is a request, not a question
g. Jaya requested Nisha to help her to complete that project.
h. Deepa said, “Would you pay me in cash, please ?”
Hint: Remember -It is a request, not a question
h. Deepa requested to pay her in cash.
i. Divyam said to Rita, ” Behave properly before elders.”
i. Divyam ordered Rita to behave properly before elders.

j. The psychologist said to Ridhima, ” Do not hesitate to talk about your

problems with your trusted ones.”

j. The psychologist advised Ridhima not to hesitate to talk about her

problems with her trusted one.

Exercise 6

a. I said to my friend, “Let’s play tennis.”

a. I proposed/suggested to my friend that we must play tennis.

b. Anish said, “Let’s go for a walk.”

b. Anish proposed that we should go for a walk.

c. Nikita said to Purvi, “Let’s wait for two minutes more.”

c. Nikita suggested to Purvi that they should wait for two minutes more.

d. “Let’s prepare our children to defeat this pandemic.”, said the educationist.

d. The educationist suggested that we must prepare our children to defeat that pandemic.

e. “Let me recheck this post.” Said Suman to Sneha.

e. Suman requested Sneha to let her check that post again.

f. Maddy said to Darshan, “Let him handle this whole drama.”

f. Maddy requested Darshan to let him handle this whole drama.

g. Subhan said to Shoaib, “Let everyone attend the party first.”

g. Subhan advised Shoaib to let everyone attend the party first.

h. The mother said to her daughter, “Let you put only a little oil in the vegetable.”

The mother advised her daughter to let her put only a little oil in the vegetable.

i. Divyam said to Salman, “Let there be silence unless my online class finishes.”

i. Divyam requested Salman to let there be silence unless his online class finishes.

j. “Let us make ourselves strong to fight against covid19 .” said the health minister to the public.

j.  The health minister suggested to the public that they must make themselves strong to fight against covid 19.

k. “Let’s have a party this Sunday. “said Satyam to Gaurav.

     Gaurav said, “Let’s not.”

Satyam proposed to Gaurav that they must have a party that Sunday.

Gaurav replied to Satyam that they must not have.

i. Shweta said to Ananya, “Let us have one cup of coffee more.”

    Ananya said to Shweta, “Let’s have.”

l.. Shweta proposed to Ananya that they must have one cup of coffee more.

 l. Ananya replied to Shweta that they must have.

REPORTED SPEECH(PART 8):OPTATIVE SENTENCE

An Optative sentence expresses

WISH

CURSE

PRAY

Sentences often start with ‘ May’ adding an exclamation mark.

May you live long !

May you go to hell !

Good morning !

HOW TO CHANGE

a. Comma and Inverted commas( ,” “) witll be changed into conjunction – that

b. Optative sentence will be changed into Assertive Sentence

c. Exclamation mark ( ! ) will be changed into Full stop (.)

c. Said / said will be changed into the following ways:-

Reporting VerbReported Speech
  Said to ( Pray )  Wished/ Prayed
  Said to (  Cursed  )Cursed
 Said to ( wishes  )wished
optative
Learn with Video

Example

PRAY

HOW TO CHANGE A PRAYER

DIRECT: Milan said to Jiya , “ May you achieve a grand success in your life .”

INDIRECT: Milan wished Jiya that she might achieve a grand success in her life.

DIRECT: Antima said, “ May you live long !”

INDIRECT: Antima said that I might live long.

CURSE

HOW TO CHANGE A CURSE

DIRECT: Akshita said to him , “May you go to hell.”

INDIRECT: Akshita cused him that he might go to hell.

WISHES

HOW TO CHANGE A WISH

If there is a wish in the Reported Speech, ‘said to’ in Reporting

verb is changed into wished or bade.

Thus It can be changed in two ways.

DIRECT: Ankita Ankita said to me , ” Good evening.”

INDIRECT: Ankita wished me good evening.

INDIRECT: Ankita bade me good evening

OR

INDIRECT: Ankita wished good evening to me.

INDIRECT: Ankita bade good evening to me

Be attentive of the following sentence:-

DIRECT: She said to me, “Good bye ! We’ll meet soon again.”

INDIRECT: She wished me good bye and said that we would meet soon again.

OR

INDIRECT: She wished me good bye saying that we would meet soon again soon.

Exercise 8

HOW TO SOLVE OPTATIVE SENTENCES

  1. I said to Anand, “May you succeed in your examination!”
  2. Disha said to me, “God may bestow you all the physical and spiritual powers!”
  3. The hermit said to Vishwa, “ May God bless you with a son!”
  4. The saint said to the crocodile, “ May you meet with your death soon!”
  5. Akriti said to Sukriti , “ Happy Deepawali!”
  6. She said, “ May Maa bless you with all the happiness of the world!”
  7. The son said, “ Good morning, Mumma!”
  8. She said, “ May God bless you.”
  9. Anushka said to Simran, “Happy Birthday! Have you arranged for any party today?”
  10. Namisha said, “ Long live our princess! “

PRACTICE MORE WITH THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES

1. She said ,” May Deeksha win this race.” 

 She wished that ___________

   a. Deeksha may win this race 

 b. Deeksha might win that race   

c.Deeksha must win this race  

 d.Deeksha must win that race 

Ans Deeksha might win that race. 

2.  The beggar said to him, ” May you prosper in life.”   

  The beggar blessed him saying  that ____ 

   a. he may prosper in life.

   b. he must prosper in life.

   c. he should prosper in life .

   d he might prosper in life 

  Ans. The beggar blessed him saying that he might prosper in life.


3. My friend said to me, ” Good morning!  I am happy to see your face.”   

My friend wished me _______ and said that _____ 

 a. good morning and said that he was happy to see my face.
b. good morning saying that he is happy to see my face. 
c. good morning and said that he was happy to see his face.

d. good morning and said that he had been happy to see my face.

Ans. good morning and said that he was happy to see my face.

4. Ravi said to ,” Good morning , my friend.”

Ravi bade _________

a. good morning my friends

b. his friends good morning

c. to his friends ,good morning

d. his friends that good morning

Ans. good morning to his friends

5. Jensie said, ” May you alwys be happy, Divyam.”

Jensie wished Divyam that ________

a. you might always be happy

b. he might always be happy

c. he may always be happy

d. you might alwys be happy

Ans. b. he might always be happy

6. ” Happy journey, my cutie pie.” said Sunny to his daughter.

Addressing her daughter as his cutie pie Sunny_______

a. said her daughter happy journey

b. told her daughter to have a happy journey

c. wished happy journey to her daughter

d. wished happy journey to his daughter

Ans. d. wished happy journey to his daughter

7. The son said, ” Good morning , Mumma !”

The son _______

a. wished his mother good morning

b. wished good morning to his mother

c. conved good morning to his mother

d. a & b both

Ans. d. a & b both are correct

8. He said to me,” May you have a happy journey !

He wished me _________

a. that I might have a happy journey

b. that I may have a happy journey

c. that may I have a happy journey

d. to have a happy journey

Ans. a. that I might have a happy journey.

8. The hermit said to the traveller , ” May you go to dogs!”

The hermit_______

a. told the traveller to go to dogs

b. wished the traveller to go to dog

c. wished the traveller that he might go to dogs

d. cursed the traveller that he might go to dogs

Ans. d. cursed the traveller that he might go to dogs

10. Anand said to Krishna, ” Good night , we will talk about

this matter tomorrow morning.”

Anand ______

a. wished Krishna good night and said that they

would talk about this matter tomorrow

b. wished Krishna good night and said that they

would talk about this matter the previous day

c. wished Krishna good night and said that they

would talk about that matter in the morning

d. wished Krishna good night and said that they

would talk about that matter the next day

d. Ans. wished Krishna good night and said that they

would talk about that matter the next day

11. Drishti said to Samridhi, ” May you meet with your misfortune!”

Drishti cursed Samridhi that ______

a. that she may meet with your misfortune

b. that she might meet with your misfortune

c. that she might meet with her misfortune

d. that she might meet with his misfortune

Ans. c. that she might meet with her misfortune

12. I said to my son, ” May you be the saviour of mankind.”

I wished my son that _________

a. he might be the saviour of mankind

b. he may be the saviour of mankind

c. he should be the saviour of mankind

d. he must be the saviour of mankind

ans. that he might be the saviour of mankind

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