LITERARY DEVICES POETIC DEVICES LITERARY ELEMENTS FIGURE OF SPEECH

Literary Devices

Literary Devices are the technique that a writer uses to expresses his ideas in a more elaborated way to enhance their writings.

  1. Simile 

A simile a comparison between two objects of different kinds which have at least one point in common. It draws a resemblance with the words like- ‘ as’ ‘like’ and ‘so’.

Example:-

1. Hritik is as brave as a Lion.

2. The moon is broken like a Mirror.

3. It dropped as a gentle rain from heaven.

4. The night is as dark as a black stone.

2. Metaphor

 A metaphor is an implied simile. It is used to make a comparison between two objects of different kinds but does have something in common. The words of resemblance ‘as’ ‘like’ or ‘so’ are not used here.

Examples 

1.The camel is a ship of the desert.

2.Kalidas is the Shakespeare of India.

3. Friendship is a sheltering tree.

4. The paper seeming boy with rats Eyes.

Difference between simile and metaphor

In Simile two objects are compared on the basis of quality 

while in Metaphor both the objects are assumed as same.

3. Personification

In personification lifeless objects, ideas or animals are given human attributes.

or

In personification lifeless objects and abstract ideas are thought of as having a life.

Examples 

Opportunity knocks at the door but once.

The trees inside are moving out into the forest.

Anxiety was sitting on her face.

Love is blind.

4. Apostrophe 

 An apostrophe is a direct address to that to the absent or a personal fight object.

Example

 Oh, death come soon!

Oh , freedom ! Why are you so dear.

 Difference between personification and apostrophe 

In personification, we assume lifeless objects or ideas as having a life.

 5. Alliteration 

Alliteration is the repetition of a consonant sound in

 a sequence of words to give a musical effect to enhance the beauty of our writing.

 Examples 

 Sally sells seashells by the seashore.

 Now in memories comes my mother

 I stand and I look I stand and look at them long and long 

 Locked in a concrete cell.

 6. Assonance 

Assonance is a repetition of a vowel sound across words 

within the lines of the poem creating internal rhyme/rhythm.

 Example –

a. A stitch in time saves nine.

b. Honesty is the best policy.

c. Sally sells seashells by the seashore.

 7. Repetition

 A Repetition is the repetition of words, phrases, sentences or sometimes a complete is stanza to highlight some particular part in our writing to make the idea clearer and memorable.

 Example:-

a. Rain Rain Go Away!

b. Balinda tickles him, she tickles him unmercifully.

c. Pistol in his left-hand pistol in his right hand.

8. Anaphora

Anaphora is a poetic device in which the writer repeats the same beginning in the form of same words, same phrases or with the same complete line chiefly with a purpose of emphasizing the repetition of elements to bring them in writing.

 Example

They do not sweat and whine about their condition 

They do not lie awake in the dark and weep for their sins.

They do not make me sick discussing their duty to God 

Not one is dissatisfied known ;not one is demanted 

With the Mania of living things

The difference among Alliteration, Assonance, Repetition and Anaphora 

Alliteration- repetition of consonant sound 

Assonance – a repetition of vowel sound 

Repetitiona repetition of words, phrases or sentences

Anaphora –  a repetition of the beginning of any sentences with the same word Phrases.

Onomatopoeia-Onomatopoeia is a poetic device in which the Sound suggests the meaning.

Examples 

a. I Babble on the Pebble.

b. I chatter chatter as a flow

c. Cuckoo coo

 9. Hyperbole

 In hyperbole, things are shown as greater or less, better or worse than they really are.

  Example

a. She wept ocean of tears.

b. Rivers of blood flowed in the battle.

c. I have not seen him for ages.

d. I saw ten thousand in a glance.

 10. Oxymoron

  An oxymoron, two opposite qualities are added to the same thing.

Example 

a. Life is bitter sweet.

b. It is an open secret. 

c. He is regularly irregular.

d. And having nothing he hath all.

 11. Enjambment 

It is a literary device in which a line carries the idea onto the next line without the usage of any punctuation mark at the end of each line and the thought ends at the line which meets with the punctuation mark ( often full stop.)

 Example

 The tree inside is moving out into the forest

The forests that were empty all these days

Where no bird could sit no insect hide

 no sun bury its feet in Shadow 

the forests that were empty all night 

will be full of trees for warning

 12. Transferred epithet

A transferred epithet is a poetic device in which an adjective is used not with the noun which it normally qualifies but with some other nouns.

 Example

 I passed Sleepless Night yesterday.

I met with the lovely rose yesterday.

The few steps of his cage on pets of velvet quiet in his quiet rage.

QUIZ LITERARY DEVICES POETIC DEVICES
LITERARY ELEMENTS FIGURE OF SPEECH

[ays_quiz id=’3′]

PRACTICE WTH SOME MORE EXERCISES

  1. Mercy drops from heart as gentle rain from Heaven.
  2. Rise, like a fountain for me day and night.
  3. He is a man of iron will.
  4. The news was a dagger to his heart.
  5. I just heard the mew of the cat.
  6. Life is a tale told by an idiot.
  7. His language is sweet like honey.
  8. He could take mountains of meat and oceans of teas.
  9. Roll on! thou deep and dark blue ocean roll!
  10. Sweet Thames! Run swiftly till I end my song.
  11. I am the daughter of earth and water.
  12. Sweet bitter tears flowed from my eyes.
  13. Truth sits upon the lips of a dying man.
  14. She accepts the kind cruelty of a doctor’s knife.
  15. I heard the lake lapping with the low sound.

ANSWERS

  1. 1. Simile
  2. 2. Simile
  3. 3. Metaphor
  4. 4. metaphor
  5. 5. Onomatopoeia
  6. 6. Metaphor
  7. 7. Simile
  8. 8. Hyperbole
  9. 9. Apostrophe
  10. 10. apostrophe
  11. 11. Personification
  12. 12. Oxymoron
  13. 13. Personification
  14. 14. Oxymoron
  15. 15. Onomatopoeia

Reported Speech: Question-based on CBSE Board Class X CBSE BOARD EXAM 2020 21 BASED QUESTIONS

LEARN WITH VIDEO

Read the following conversation and then report what was said by completing the following passage:-

A. A CONVERSATION BETWEEN A LADY SALES CLERK AND A PERSON NAMED HARISH

Harish: Please give me a postal stamp for the letter I want to send to the next village.
Sales Clerk: Here you are sir. That will cost rs 5/

Harish: but you charged me rupees 5/- yesterday for a letter to Bengaluru and this is only a short distance away.

Sales clerk: It is the rule, sir. Every envelope should have a stamp worth rs 5/-
Harish: I think you are cheating me. I will go to another post office.

Harish went to a post office and (a)______to send to the next village. (b) She gave him one and said that it (c)_______ Harish protested that (d) ______ for a letter to Bengaluru and that was only a short distance away. The clerk politely explained that(e)________and told him that(f)___. Harish retorted that (f)________ to another post office.

Tick the correct answer

a. (i) requested the sales clerk to give her a postal stamp for the letter he wanted

(ii) said the sales clerk to give him a postal stamp for the letter he wanted

(iii) requested the sales clerk to give him a postal stamp for the letter he wants

(iv) requested the sales clerk to give him a postal stamp for the letter he wanted

B. (I) Will cost at 5 rs/

(ii) would cost at 5 rs/

(iii) will costed at 5 rs/

(iv) would costed at 5 rs/

c. (i) she had charged him rs 5/

(ii) she has charged him rs 5/

(iii) she had charged him rs 5/

(iv) she would have charged him rs 5/

d. (i) she is cheating him so he would go

(ii) she was cheating him so he would go

(iii) she was cheating him so he will go

(iv) she had been cheating him so he would go

ANSWER:

Harish went to a post office and (a)requested the sales clerk to give him a postal stamp for the letter he wanted to send to the next village. (b) She gave him one and said that it (c)would cost rs 5/ Harish protested that (d) she had charged him rs 5/ for a letter to Bengaluru and that was only a short distance away. The clerk politely explained (e)that it was a rule and told him that(f) every envelope should have a stamp worth rs 5/-Harish retorted that she was cheating him so he would go to another post office.

B. A conversation between a master and his servant of a restaurant

Mr. Gill: You did an excellent job today.
Golu: Is it good enough to get the Chilli Paneer award?
Mr. Gill: There is no such thing as Chilli Paneer Award.
Golu: Then can I have just Chilli Paneer with ten stuff parathas?

B.. Mr. Gill was pleased today with the sincerity at the cleaning job of his servant.
So he applauded him and said (a) ______an excellent job that day. . Happy. Golu wanted to know (b)________ to get Chili Paneer award? Confused Golu remarked that(c) _________________ as the Chili Paneer Award. At this Golu quipped asking (d)_______________with ten stuff parathas.

Tick the correct answers

a. (i) he has done

(ii) he had done

(iii) he was done

(ic) he did

b. (i)if it is good enough

(ii) if it had been good enough

(iii) if it were good enough

(iv) if it was good

c. (i) there is no such thing

(ii) there was no such thing

(iii) there had been no such thing

(iv) there has been n such thing

d. (i) if he could have just Chili Paneer

(ii) if he can have just Chili Paneer

(iii) if he can had just Chili Paneer

(iv) if he may have just Chili Paneer

ANSWER

Mr. Gill was pleased today with the sincerity at the cleaning job of his servant.
So he applauded him and said (a)he had done an excellent job that day. . Happy. Golu wanted to know (b)if it was good enough to get Chili Paneer award? Confused Golu remarked that(c)there was no such thing as the Chili Paneer Award. At this Golu quipped asking (d)if he could have just Chili Paneer with ten stuff parathas.

c. A CONVERSATION BETWEEN A DAUGHTER AND HER FATHER

Father : Baby , if you stop watching TV,I will give you

five hundred rupees

Daughter : Then I will stop watching TV.

Father: Good girl.

Daughter : With your five hundred rupees I can watch

several movies.

Upset with daughter’s addiction to TV her father decided to wean her away from it.

He promised that (a)_______five hundred rupees if she shopped watching TV.

The prospect of making five hundred rupees had its due effect his daughter for she

immediately replied that ( b) ______watching TV if she got the money.

Quite happy that his trick had worked , the father appreciated her saying

that (c) ________. But the very next moment he was

shocked to hear his daughter’s words that ____ watch several movies.

Tick the correct answer

a. (i) he will give her

(ii) he would give him

(iii) he would give her

(iv) he would have given her

b. (i)she would stop

(ii) she will stop

(iii) she would be stopped

(iv) she will be stopped

c. (i) you are a good girl

(ii) she is a good girl

(iii) you were a good girl

(iv) she was a good girl

d. (i) with his five hundred rupees she would

(ii) with her five hundred rupees she could

(iii) with his five hundred rupees she could

(iv) with his five hundred rupees she can

ANSWER

Upset with daughter’s addiction to TV her father decided to wean her away from it.

He promised that (a) he would give her five hundred rupees if she shopped watching

TV. The prospect of making five hundred rupees had its due effect his daughter

for she immediately replied that ( b) she would stop watching TV if she got the

money .Quite happy that his trick had worked , the father appreciated her saying

that (c)she was a good girl. But the very next moment he was

shocked to hear his daughter’s words that with his five hundred rupees she could

watch several movies.

C.

Practice Paper

     Dialogue Writing

Niyati:      Agrima  has been choosen for final

                   dance round, you know.

Akriti:.       Really? So finally her efforts

                     brought fruits.

Niyati:.     But there is a problem. She had 

                  met with an accident  yesterday.

Niyati :       oh! It’s really sad. I

                    hope she will be fine by

                     the final round.

Akriti:.      I hope so. You must visit her

                    and motivate her not to lose

                    courage. 

Niyati :    Ofcourse,  I shall help her

                 though she never gives up easily.

Nii:        Yes you are right okay you will

                go with me to meet her.

                You must not go to alone.

Fill in the blanks with suitable speech-

Niyati informed Akriti that Agrima  a).………………………………………., At this Akriti surprised and sad that finally b).…………………………….Then Niyati again informed her that there.c.)  ………………………………………………… she

d)………………………………. Akriti got thunderbolt and expressed that  e.)  …………………………………… and added that

f. )…………………………………………. .fine by the final round. On it Niyati showed her hope urged Akriti that she g.  ……………………………………………… Akriti also  delighted  to help her and said that h)………………………………………..

Niyant advice her at last  that (I).…………………

…………… she must not go alone.

Solution 

a.had been choosen for final dance l round. 

b.her efforts had brought fruits .

C.was a problem ..

d. she had met with an accident the previous day. 

e. It was very sad 

f.she hoped that she would be fine soon

g. she must visit her and motivate her not to lose courage . 

h. she never loses courage so easily 

I.she would go with her …

SOLUTION : REPORTED SPEECH EXERCISES

Exercise 1.

a. I Radha says ,” Tapan is a nice boy.”

a. Radha says that Tapan is a nice boy.

b. Ankita says , ” They enjoyed the game.”

b. Ankita says that they enjoyed the game .

c. “I can’t beat you.” says Abhimanyu to Arjuna.

c. Abhimanyu tells Arjun that he can’t beat him.

d. The teacher will say, ” These boys never complete their work.”

d. The teacher will say that those boys never complete their work.

e. Ahana will be saying, ” I met with my best friend here Last year.”

e. Ahana will be saying that she met her best friend there the previous year.

f. Samridhi tells Sukriti ,”Amrita will be playing chess at this time tomorrow.”

f. Samridhi tells Sukriti that Amrita will be playing chess at that time the next day.

g. “If you can not assist me”, says Pushpendra to his friend ” I will not be able to listen

to you in future.”

g. Pushpendra tells his friend if he can not assist him, he will not be able to

listen to him in future.

Exercise 2

a. Richard said, “Julia is writing a letter.”
a. Richard said that Julia was writing a letter.
b. Ananya said to me, “He swims very well.”
b. Ananya told me that he swam very well.
c. The sage said,” God loves all .”
c. The sage said that God loves all.
d. “ Ananya has been writing a poem since the last two hours,” said Disha to Nisha.
d. Disha told Nisha that Ananya had been writing a poem since the previous two hours.
e. The musician said, “True music pours out from the hearts naturally.”
e. The musician said that true music pours out from the heart naturally.
f. Divya said, “ God saves those who save themselves.”
f. Divya said that God saves those who save themselves.
g. He said, “ Angel has completed her work.”
g. He said that Angel had completed her work.
h. Ritvik said to me, “I shall leave for Vijayanagar soon.”
h. Ritvik told me that he would leave for Vijaynagar soon.
i. “Cynthia is the Moon goddess according to Greek mythology,” told the teacher to her students.
i. The teacher told her students that Cynthia is the moon goddess according to Greek mythology.

j.“Nikita,” said Ashu to Gazala, “had not met with her sister yet.”
j. Anshu told Ganzala that Nikita had not met her sister yet.

Exercise 3.

a. He said to me, “ I have finished my work.”
a. He told me that he had finished his work.
b. Shikha said to Sunita, “ You must not hurt yourself.”
b. Shikha told Sunita that she must not hurt herself.
c. Garima said to Gita,“ She enjoyed her holidays well.”
c. Garima told Gita that she had enjoyed her holidays well.
d. Divyansh said, “You are honest.”
d. Divyansh said that he/she/I was honest.
e. Divya said, “She must not waste her time.”
e. Divya said that she must not waste her time.
f. Deepak said to me, “ You should meet me tomorrow.”
f. Deepak told me that I should meet him the next day.
g.He said to me, “ I will return your notes tomorrow.”
g. He reported to me that he would return his notes the next day.
h. The teacher said, “ You always come late, Bhawna.”
h. The teacher told Bhawna that she always comes late.
i. Deeksha said to me, “ You did not wait for me yesterday.”
i. Deeksha told me that I had not waited for her the previous day.
j Akriti said to Rachna, “I can not talk to you anymore.”
j Akriti told Rachna that she could not talk to her anymore.

Exercise 4 (A)

a. Ankush said to Nisha, “ Are you not feeling well here? ”
a. Ankush asked Nisha if she was not feeling well there.
b. You said to Arunima, “ Will you lend me your pen?”
b. You asked Arunima if she would lend you her pen.
c. Sheetal said to Akshat, “ Did you meet Akash yesterday ?”

Sheetal asked Akshat if he had met Akash the previous day.
c. Anshuman said to Pratibha, “ Had you seen this movie before?”

c. Anshuman asked Akshat if he had seen that movies ago.
d. Aditi said, “ Didn’t you look into the matter deeply?”
d. Aditi asked if she/ he/ I hadn’t looked into the matter deeply.
e. She said to Saumya,” May I use your pen for some time?”
e. She asked Saumya if she might use her pen for some time.
f. Nishi said to Rachna, “ Won’t you like to have a cup of coffee with me?
f. Nishi asked Rachna if she won’t like to have a cup of coffee with her.
g. Divya said to Shivam, “ Did Naman come to meet you yesterday ?”
g. Divya asked Shivam if Naman had come to meet him the previous day.
h. Raunak said to Abhishek, “ Have you seen Sagar anywhere ?”
h. Raunak asked Abhishek if he had seen Sagar anywhere.

i Ankush said to me , “Can you spare some time for me?”

i. Ankush asked me if I could spare some time for him.

Exercise 4 (B)

a. Babita said, “When are you going to meet me?
a. Babita asked when I was going to meet her.
b. Sneha said to Pakhi, “Why are you so worried?”
b. Sneha asked Pakhi why she was so worried.
c. Bhumi said to Anku, “How many pencils did she buy last week?”
c. Bhumi asked Anku how many pencils she had bought the previous week.
d. Priyanshu said to Kesri, “Why are you teasing your friend?”
d. Priyanshu asked Kesri why he was testing his friend.
e. Kainat said to Saloni, “Why hadn’t you complete your work till now ?”
e. Kainat asked Saloni why she hadn’t completed her work till then.
f. “Where is my mobile ?” said Nidhi to Khushi.
f. Nidhi asked Khushi where her mobile was.
g. Abhishek said to Rahul, “Whose book was Ayush asking for ?”
g.Abhishek told Rahul whose book Ayush had been asking for.
h.Manas said to Rahim, “Which watch are you asking for?”
h. Manas asked Rahim which watch he was asking for.
i. “How are you ?” asked Riya.
i. Riya enquired about how she was.
j. Ridhim said to Ridhima, “How have you done so toughest task ?”
j. Ridhim asked Ridhima how she had done so toughest task.

Exercise 5

a. My friend said to me, ” Do what you wish .”
a. My friend advised me to do what I wished.
b. The doctor said to the patient, ” Have a walk early in the morning daily.”
b. The doctor advised the patient to have a walk early in the morning.
c. The officer said to the guard, ” Lock the gate sharp at 6 pm.”
c. The officer ordered the guard to lock the gate sharp at 6 pm.
d. ” Have patience and keep on practicing.”, said Saba to Zeenat
d. Zeenat advised Saba to have patience and keep on practicing.
e. Dhruv said, ” Get out of my room and don’t show me your face again.”
e. Dhruv ordered to get out of his room and not to show his face again.
f. Nikhil said to Ravita, ” Never waste your energy in such a tedious task.”
f. Nikhil advised Ravita never to waste her energy on such a tedious task.
g. ” Could you help me to complete this project?” Jaya said to Nisha.
Hint: Remember -It is a request, not a question
g. Jaya requested Nisha to help her to complete that project.
h. Deepa said, “Would you pay me in cash, please ?”
Hint: Remember -It is a request, not a question
h. Deepa requested to pay her in cash.
i. Divyam said to Rita, ” Behave properly before elders.”
i. Divyam ordered Rita to behave properly before elders.

j. The psychologist said to Ridhima, ” Do not hesitate to talk about your

problems with your trusted ones.”

j. The psychologist advised Ridhima not to hesitate to talk about her

problems with her trusted one.

Exercise 6

a. I said to my friend, “Let’s play tennis.”

a. I proposed/suggested to my friend that we must play tennis.

b. Anish said, “Let’s go for a walk.”

b. Anish proposed that we should go for a walk.

c. Nikita said to Purvi, “Let’s wait for two minutes more.”

c. Nikita suggested to Purvi that they should wait for two minutes more.

d. “Let’s prepare our children to defeat this pandemic.”, said the educationist.

d. The educationist suggested that we must prepare our children to defeat that pandemic.

e. “Let me recheck this post.” Said Suman to Sneha.

e. Suman requested Sneha to let her check that post again.

f. Maddy said to Darshan, “Let him handle this whole drama.”

f. Maddy requested Darshan to let him handle this whole drama.

g. Subhan said to Shoaib, “Let everyone attend the party first.”

g. Subhan advised Shoaib to let everyone attend the party first.

h. The mother said to her daughter, “Let you put only a little oil in the vegetable.”

The mother advised her daughter to let her put only a little oil in the vegetable.

i. Divyam said to Salman, “Let there be silence unless my online class finishes.”

i. Divyam requested Salman to let there be silence unless his online class finishes.

j. “Let us make ourselves strong to fight against covid19 .” said the health minister to the public.

j.  The health minister suggested to the public that they must make themselves strong to fight against covid 19.

k. “Let’s have a party this Sunday. “said Satyam to Gaurav.

     Gaurav said, “Let’s not.”

Satyam proposed to Gaurav that they must have a party that Sunday.

Gaurav replied to Satyam that they must not have.

i. Shweta said to Ananya, “Let us have one cup of coffee more.”

    Ananya said to Shweta, “Let’s have.”

l.. Shweta proposed to Ananya that they must have one cup of coffee more.

 l. Ananya replied to Shweta that they must have.

REPORTED SPEECH(PART 8):OPTATIVE SENTENCE

An Optative sentence expresses

WISH

CURSE

PRAY

Sentences often start with ‘ May’ adding an exclamation mark.

May you live long !

May you go to hell !

Good morning !

HOW TO CHANGE

a. Comma and Inverted commas( ,” “) witll be changed into conjunction – that

b. Optative sentence will be changed into Assertive Sentence

c. Exclamation mark ( ! ) will be changed into Full stop (.)

c. Said / said will be changed into the following ways:-

Reporting VerbReported Speech
  Said to ( Pray )  Wished/ Prayed
  Said to (  Cursed  )Cursed
 Said to ( wishes  )wished
optative
Learn with Video

Example

PRAY

HOW TO CHANGE A PRAYER

DIRECT: Milan said to Jiya , “ May you achieve a grand success in your life .”

INDIRECT: Milan wished Jiya that she might achieve a grand success in her life.

DIRECT: Antima said, “ May you live long !”

INDIRECT: Antima said that I might live long.

CURSE

HOW TO CHANGE A CURSE

DIRECT: Akshita said to him , “May you go to hell.”

INDIRECT: Akshita cused him that he might go to hell.

WISHES

HOW TO CHANGE A WISH

If there is a wish in the Reported Speech, ‘said to’ in Reporting

verb is changed into wished or bade.

Thus It can be changed in two ways.

DIRECT: Ankita Ankita said to me , ” Good evening.”

INDIRECT: Ankita wished me good evening.

INDIRECT: Ankita bade me good evening

OR

INDIRECT: Ankita wished good evening to me.

INDIRECT: Ankita bade good evening to me

Be attentive of the following sentence:-

DIRECT: She said to me, “Good bye ! We’ll meet soon again.”

INDIRECT: She wished me good bye and said that we would meet soon again.

OR

INDIRECT: She wished me good bye saying that we would meet soon again soon.

Exercise 8

HOW TO SOLVE OPTATIVE SENTENCES

  1. I said to Anand, “May you succeed in your examination!”
  2. Disha said to me, “God may bestow you all the physical and spiritual powers!”
  3. The hermit said to Vishwa, “ May God bless you with a son!”
  4. The saint said to the crocodile, “ May you meet with your death soon!”
  5. Akriti said to Sukriti , “ Happy Deepawali!”
  6. She said, “ May Maa bless you with all the happiness of the world!”
  7. The son said, “ Good morning, Mumma!”
  8. She said, “ May God bless you.”
  9. Anushka said to Simran, “Happy Birthday! Have you arranged for any party today?”
  10. Namisha said, “ Long live our princess! “

PRACTICE MORE WITH THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES

1. She said ,” May Deeksha win this race.” 

 She wished that ___________

   a. Deeksha may win this race 

 b. Deeksha might win that race   

c.Deeksha must win this race  

 d.Deeksha must win that race 

Ans Deeksha might win that race. 

2.  The beggar said to him, ” May you prosper in life.”   

  The beggar blessed him saying  that ____ 

   a. he may prosper in life.

   b. he must prosper in life.

   c. he should prosper in life .

   d he might prosper in life 

  Ans. The beggar blessed him saying that he might prosper in life.


3. My friend said to me, ” Good morning!  I am happy to see your face.”   

My friend wished me _______ and said that _____ 

 a. good morning and said that he was happy to see my face.
b. good morning saying that he is happy to see my face. 
c. good morning and said that he was happy to see his face.

d. good morning and said that he had been happy to see my face.

Ans. good morning and said that he was happy to see my face.

4. Ravi said to ,” Good morning , my friend.”

Ravi bade _________

a. good morning my friends

b. his friends good morning

c. to his friends ,good morning

d. his friends that good morning

Ans. good morning to his friends

5. Jensie said, ” May you alwys be happy, Divyam.”

Jensie wished Divyam that ________

a. you might always be happy

b. he might always be happy

c. he may always be happy

d. you might alwys be happy

Ans. b. he might always be happy

6. ” Happy journey, my cutie pie.” said Sunny to his daughter.

Addressing her daughter as his cutie pie Sunny_______

a. said her daughter happy journey

b. told her daughter to have a happy journey

c. wished happy journey to her daughter

d. wished happy journey to his daughter

Ans. d. wished happy journey to his daughter

7. The son said, ” Good morning , Mumma !”

The son _______

a. wished his mother good morning

b. wished good morning to his mother

c. conved good morning to his mother

d. a & b both

Ans. d. a & b both are correct

8. He said to me,” May you have a happy journey !

He wished me _________

a. that I might have a happy journey

b. that I may have a happy journey

c. that may I have a happy journey

d. to have a happy journey

Ans. a. that I might have a happy journey.

8. The hermit said to the traveller , ” May you go to dogs!”

The hermit_______

a. told the traveller to go to dogs

b. wished the traveller to go to dog

c. wished the traveller that he might go to dogs

d. cursed the traveller that he might go to dogs

Ans. d. cursed the traveller that he might go to dogs

10. Anand said to Krishna, ” Good night , we will talk about

this matter tomorrow morning.”

Anand ______

a. wished Krishna good night and said that they

would talk about this matter tomorrow

b. wished Krishna good night and said that they

would talk about this matter the previous day

c. wished Krishna good night and said that they

would talk about that matter in the morning

d. wished Krishna good night and said that they

would talk about that matter the next day

d. Ans. wished Krishna good night and said that they

would talk about that matter the next day

11. Drishti said to Samridhi, ” May you meet with your misfortune!”

Drishti cursed Samridhi that ______

a. that she may meet with your misfortune

b. that she might meet with your misfortune

c. that she might meet with her misfortune

d. that she might meet with his misfortune

Ans. c. that she might meet with her misfortune

12. I said to my son, ” May you be the saviour of mankind.”

I wished my son that _________

a. he might be the saviour of mankind

b. he may be the saviour of mankind

c. he should be the saviour of mankind

d. he must be the saviour of mankind

ans. that he might be the saviour of mankind

REPORTED SPEECH (Part 7)EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES

EXCLAMATORY ARE THE STATEMENTS THAT SHOW

HAPPINESS

SORROW

SURPRISE

REGRET

APPLAUSE

Following are the words that express

HAPPIENES –     Hurrah! Oh !

SORROW–        Alas! Ah ! Oh !

SURPRISE-         Wow !What a great , How

REGRET  –    Oh my goodness !

APPLAUD/PRAISE-         Bravo ! Well Done !   

HOW TO CHANGE

a. Comma and Inverted commas( ,” “) will be changed into conjunction – that

b. Exclamatory sentence will be changed into Assertive Sentence

c. Exclamation mark ( ! ) will be changed into Full stop (.)

c.Said / said to  and exclamation phrases are changed into the following ways:-

Reporting VerbReported Speech
  Said to (HAPPINESS)  Exclaimed with joy/ happiness/delight
  Said to ( SORROW ) Exclaimed with sorrow
 Said to ( Surprise ) Exclaimed with surprise/ delight
Said to ( REGRET ) Exclaimed with regret
Said to (  Applause ) Applauded / Praised saying that….

Examples

HAPPIENSS

Namita said to Riya , “ Hurrah ! I have stood first in the class .”

Namita exclaimed Riya with joy that she had stood first in the class.

Divya said, “ Wow ! We have won the match.”

Divya exclaimed with  joy that they had won the match.

SORROW

Akshita said , “ Alas  ! I have lost the match .”

Akshita exclaimed with sorrow that she had lost the match.

Divya said to Nikhil , “ Ah! We have lost the match .”

Divya exclaimed  Nikhil  with sorrow that they had lost the match.

REGRET 

Uday said  , “ Oh God ! I lost my key”

Uday exclaimed with regret that they had lost his key.

Niti said, “ Oh ! There is no hope now.”

Niti exclaimed with regret that there was no hope then.

Applause / Praise  

The teacher said to the boys,” Bravo ! You have played well.”

The teacher applauded the boys saying that they had played well.

Disha said, “ Well done ! You did your job perfectly.”

Disha said that she had done her job perfectly. 

SURPRISE 

Simran said , “ What a great fall !”

Simran exclaimed with delight that it was a great fall.

Nishi said, “ How beautiful the rain is !”

Nishi exclaimed that it was a very beautiful rain.

NOTE

a. How/ What will be changed into –very / great

b. In surprises – said /said to can be changed into only exclaimed only.

WITH JOY or WITH SORROW is not every time necessary to be added.

Exercise 7

How to change an Exclamatory Sentence

The girl said , “ Hurrah ! I found my lost ring.”

a. They said, “ Alas ! She lost her dog. “

b. Sahe said, “ What a horrible snake it is !”

c. He said to me, “ Wow ! It was the picture, I wanted for.”

d. Divya said to Dipti, “ How clever you are !”

e. “ How pretty this sparrow is!” said said Mitu to Kirti.

f. He said, “ What a dark night is it !”

g. The captain said to the team, “ Bravo ! You hit the stroke.”

“f. Good heavens ! I dropped my keys somewhere. “ Saumit said to Samarth.

g. Ankit said to me, “ Oh ! Our beautiful garden has been spoiled due to hail.”

h. Avanti said ,” Alas ! I lost my beautiful pen.”

PRACTICE WITH SOME MORE EXERCISES

1. ” How pretty you are ! ” said the fox to the crow. 

The Fox exclaimed with surprise that _________he is very pr​​etty 

a. He were very pretty 

b. He had been very pretty 

c. he was very pretty 

d. he was very pretty 

Ans. d. he was very pretty. 

2. Poonam said ,” Hurrah ! I have won the competition. “

Poonam exclaimed with joy that she ______

a. had won the competition 

b. she had won the competition 

c. I had won the competition 

d. we had won the competition 

Ans. b. she had won the competition 

3. They said to me,” What a nice flower it is !”

They exclaimed me that _______

a. it has been a nice flower 

b. it was a nice flower 

c. that was a nice flower

d. it had been a nice flower 

Ans. b It was a nice flower. 

4. The boy said , ” What a fine picnic it was ! ” 

The boy exclaimed that ________

a. t has been a nice picnic 

b. It had been a nice picnic 

c. It was a nice picnic 

d. That was a nice picnic.

Ans. It was a nice picnic 

5. Nandini said ” Alas ! My friend has met with an accident. ” 

Nandini exclaimed with sorrow that ___________.

a. her friend was met with an accident 

b. my friend had met with an accident 

c. her friend had met with an accident 

d. my friend has met with an accident

Ans. that her friend had met with an accident 

6. Arjuna said to Rishika, ” Oh ! We have got a new home.”

Arjuna exclaimed Rishika with joy _______

  a. that he had got a new home 

b. that they had got a new home 

c. that we had got a new home 

d. that we had got a new home

Ans. that they had got a new home.

7. Akshat said ,” Hurrah ! We have booked our flight.” 

Akshat exclaimed with happiness that _______

a. they had booked their flight 

b. we have booked our flight 

c. they have booked their flight 

d. we had booked our flight 

Ans. they had booked their flight 

8. Nisha said to us , ” Bravo !  You have played well. ” 

Nisha applauded us saying that ______

a. we had played well

b. they has played well

c. we have played well 

d. they have played well 

Ans. we had played well. 

9 . The teacher said to me, ” Congratulations! You  have stood first. ” 

The teacher congratulated me ______

a. that I had stood first 

b. saying that I had stood first 

c. that you had stood first 

d. saying that I have stood first. 

Ans. saying that I had stood first.  

10. I said ,” Alas! I have lost my bunch of keys. “

I exclaimed with sorrow that _______

a.  he had lost his bunch of keys 

b. I had lost my bunch of keys 

c. she has lost his bunch of keys 

d. I have lost my bunch of keys 

Ans. I had lost my  bunch of keys 

PRACTICE WITH MIXED UP EXERCISE

PRACTICE WITH A DIALOUGE

Priya : Look, what is there  ?

    Jiya: Wow ! What a pretty bird it is !

    PrIya:  Have you seen  it before?

    Jiya : No, I haven’t.

Priya: Alas ! you could not see one more pretty bird here.

Jiya : Oh! It is really sad.

Priya aksed Jiya in amazement what ______ Jiya exclaimed

with surprise_________   Priya asked Jiya again if she had seen it before. 

Jiya replied that _______. Priya exclaimed with sorrow that ______

Answer

Priya asked Jiya in amazement what there was. Jiya exclaimed with surprise that it was a nice bird.  Priya asked Jiya again if she had seen it before. Jiya replied that she had not. Priya exclaimed Jiya with sorrow that she could not see one more pretty bird. Jiya also exclaimed with unhappiness that it was really sad.

REPORTED SPEECH(Part6B): IMPERATIVE SENTENCES: SUGGESTIONS STARTING WITH LET US, LET’S AND LET + ( ME, YOU, THEM, HIM, HER, IT)

II. TYPE 2: Request / Advice – beginning with – Let +us

Sometimes Imperative sentences start with LET US.

So if the request or advice starts with

The changes will take place in the following ways:-

a.

Reporting VerbReported Speech
  said/ Said to /told  proposed / suggested
  said/ Said to /told+ objectproposed / suggested+ to
HOW TO CHANGE ‘SAY’ IN IMPERATIVE SENTENCES

a. Said / said to / told – will be replaced with   –  proposed / suggested

Example:

DIRECT : He said , ” Let us wait for Siya for sometime.”

INDIRECT: He proposed that we should wait for Siya for sometime.

NOTE : If we have object after said , it will be replaced with –

proposed to/ suggested to+

Example:

DIRECT: He said to Disha, ” Let us play carom for sometime.”

INDIRECT: He proposed to Disha that they should play carom for sometime.

Learn With Video :

b. Comma /Inverted Commas (, “ “ )-

will be replaced with – THAT

c. ‘LET ‘- will be changed in – we/they ( as per noticing the object and subject,)

If you notice the SUBJECT/OBJECT of 1st person in the reporting verb,

it will be changed into ‘WE’- as a subject of Reported Speech

If you notice the subject /object of Reporting Verb in the 2nd or 3rd person, it will be changed into ‘THEY’. as a subject of Reported Speech

c. US – will be changed in to SHOULD / MUST

EXAMPLE:-

Direct : Siya said to Diya, ” Let’s go to movie.”

INDIRECT: Siya proposed to Diya that they must go to movie.

DIRECT: Anuj said to me , ” Let us play chess.”

INDIRECT: Anuj suggested to me that we should play chess.

DIRECT: Ankita said , ” Let’s have a cup of coffee. “

INDIRECT: Ankita proposed that we must have a cup of coffee.

OR

INDIRECT: Ankita suggested that they must have a cup of coffee.

III. TYPE 3: Request / Advice/ Order beginning  with Let + Other Object

In the third type of Imperative sentences , we find the sentences that

start with other objective cases except US, which start with-

Let +me, you, him, her, it and them ( except us)

Basic points to ponder :-

If we find Advice / Request / Order in 3rd type of Imperative sentences,

the changes will take place in the following ways:-

Affirmative

a. Said / said to  in Reporting Verb will be changed in

  —— requested /advised / ordered

 b. Comma , Inverted Commas ( ‘ ” “) will be changed into ( to/ not to )

c. LET – will be changed into – TO LET

Request

DIRECT: Anuj said to his boss, “Let me go home soon today.”

INDIRECT: Anuj requested his boss to let him go home soon that day.

Advice

DIRECT: Avantika said , “ Let him go.”

INDIRECT: Avantika advised to let him go.

DIRECT: Avni said to me , ” Do not let him go.”

INDIRECT:Avni advised me not yo let him go.

Order

DIRECT: Vaishali said to her secretary, “ Let her do her work by herself.”

INDIRECT: Vaishali ordered her secretaryto let her do her work by herself.

Exercise 6

a. I said to my friend, “Let’s play tennis.”

b. Anish said, “Let’s go for a walk.”

c. Nikita said to Purvi, “ Let’s wait for 2 minutes more.”

d. “ Let’s prepare our children to defeat this pandemic.”, said the educationist.

e. “ Let me check this post again.” Said Suman to Sneha.

f. Maddy said to Darshan, “ Let him handle whole this drama.”

g. Subhan said to Shoaib, “ Let everyone attend the party first.”

h. The mother said to her daughter, “ Let you put only a little oil in the vegetable.”

i. Divyam said to Salman, “ Let there be silence unless my online class finishes.”

j. “ Let us make ourselves strong to fight against covid19 .” said the health minister to the public. 

k. “ Let’s have a party this Sunday. “said Satyam to Gaurav.

l. Gaurav, said “ “Let’s not.”

m. Shweta said to Ananya, “ Let us have one cup of coffee more.”

n. Ananya said to Shweta, “Let’s have.”

PRACTICE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES

Opt out the correct one:-

  1. .Ram said to me , “Let us sing together.”

Ram proposed to me that _____ sing together. 

a. he must

b. we must

c. they must

Ans. b. we must

2. Nikhil said to his friends ” Let me do it immediately.”

Nikhil suggested to his friends that ______do it immediately. 

a. we should

b. they should

c. he should

Ans. b. they should

3. Smita said to her younger sister, ” Let me do my homework first. ” 
Smita ordered her sister _______ do her homework first.

a. to let me

b. to let her

c. to let him

Ans. to let her
4. Akshay said to her mom, ” Let me go to play outside .”

Akshay requested his mom _____  play outside.

a. to let him go to

b. that he should go to

c. to let them go to

Ans. a. to let him go to

5. He said to me , ” Let us start tomorrow.”

He proposed to me that ____the next day.

a. we must start

b. they must start

c. you must

Ans. a. we must

6. “Let me pick some flowers.” The child said to the gardener.

The child requested the gardener ______some flowers.

a. to let me pick

b. that let her pick

c. to let her pick

Ans. a. to let him

 g. He said in anger, ” Let the boy go alone if he wants so.”

He ordered in anger ________ if he wanted. 

a. to let him go alone

b. to let the boy go alone

c. that the boy go alone

Ans. c. let the boy go alone

h. She said to her sisters,” Let us enjoy some music .” 

She proposed to her sisters ________ enjoy some music.

a. that we must enjoy some music.

b. that they must enjoy some musi.

c. to enjoy some music.

I. Gautam said to me ,” Let us have a party tonight. ” 

Gautam proposed to me _______ have party that night.

a. that he should

b. to we should

c. that we should

Ans. c. that we should

j. The cat said to the rat ,” Let us start on a pilgrimage. ” 

The cat suggested to the rat that _____ start on a pilgrimage.  

a. we should

b. they should

c. she should

Ans. b. they should

REPORTED SPEECH:(PART 6A): IMPERATIVE SENTENCES: HOW TO CHANGE ORDER, REQUEST, ADVICE

As we know ,all the sentences that express – order, requests , advice, suggestions,

are called Imperative Sentences. They are again sub divided as

I. TYPE1: Request / Advice / Order –     beginning with main Verb / Do not

II. TYPE 2: Request / Advice / Order–     beginning with Let +us

III. TYPE 3: Request / Advice/ Order      beginning  with Let + Other Object

So first we SHALL study , Request / Advice / Order –

I. ‘How to change Imperative Sentences’ beginning with –

     – Main Verb / Do not

So the changes will take place in the following ways:-

Reporting VerbReported Speech
  Said to (Order)  ordered / instructed /commanded
  Said to ( Advice )advised
  Said to ( Request )requested/ urged
HOW TO CHANGE ‘SAY’ IN IMPERATIVE SENTENCES

Sometimes all these verbs can be replaced with ‘ asked ‘or some other related synonyms. But at the initial level try to practice with the above-given verbs.

I. Imperative Sentences Affirmative Order

a. Said / said to – will be replaced with   –  ordered /instructed /commanded

b. Comma /Inverted Commas (, “ “ )- will be replaced with infinitive ( to + V1)

Example:-

DIRECT: The teacher said to Richa , “ Close all the windows before leaving

 the classroom.”

INDIRECT: The teacher ordered Richa to close all the windows before leaving

 the classroom.

DIRECT: Vanshika said to Shruti , “ Stop chattering. “

INDIRECT: Vanshika instructed Shruti to stop chattering.

DIRECT: Shruti said to Rishika, ” Return my pen. “

INDIRECT: Shruti commanded Rishika to return her pen.

II. Imperative SentencesNegative-Order

a. Said / said to will be replaced with ordered /instructed / commanded Commas and Inverted commas will be replaced again with Infinitive

b. ,,“ “ – infinitive ( to + V1)Do not/ Don’t will be replaced with not to / forbade

c. Do not – not to/ forbade

Example

Naman said to Abhishek,“ Don’t disturb me.”

Naman ordered Abhishek not to disturb him.

  or

Naman forbade Abhishek to disturb him.

NOTE : Forbade already takes Negative form so the sentence will not take NOT.

III. Imperative SentenceAdvice

Affirmative/ Negative

  • Said / said to – Advice   –  advised
  • , “ “ —– infinitve ( to + V1)
  • Do not/ Don’t – not to/ forbade

DIRECT: Rahim said to Shubhanshu , ” Work hard and win the world.”

INDIRECT: Rahim advised Shubhanshu to work hard and win the world.

DIRECT: arsh said to Sumit,“ Do not waste your time.”

INDIRECT: Harsh advised Sumit not to waste his time.

  or

INDIRECT: Harsh forbade Sumit to waste his time.

IV. Imperative SentencesAdvice

Affirmative/ Negative

a. Said / said to will be replaced with  advised

b. Comma/Inverted commas will be replaced with TO

, “ “ —– ( to + V1)

c. Do not/ Don’t will be replaced with not to/ forbade

DIRECT: Manas said to Mansi ,” Never believe on the strangers.”

INDIRECT: Manas advised Mansi never to believe on strangers.

  or

INDIRECT: Sanskriti forbade Mansi to believe on the strangers.

V. Imperative Sentences Request

Affirmative/ Negativ

a. Said / said to is changes into – requested/ urged

b. Comma/Inverted commas will be changed into Infinitive(to+v1)

, “ “ – ( to + V1

c. Do not/ Don’t will be replaced with not to/ forbade

d. The words of request i.e please or kindly are removed in Indirect speech as they are already replaced with request.

DIRECT: Shivani said to Shivam , “ Please, give me your notes for sometime.”

INDIRECT: Shivani requested Shivam to give her his notes for sometime.

DIRECT: Siya said to Diya , “ Kindly help me .”

INDIRECT: Siya requested Diya to help her.

NOTE: Sometimes requests start with could, would and can like-

“Could I use you pen, please.”

“Would you please tell me the way to the seaport ,please ?”

Though the sentences are in the Question form but their indirect speech will be framed only in request. Because the sentences mentioned above are making requests.

Example:

DIRECT: Riya said to Diya , ” Could you please help me in completing my project?”

INDIRECT: Riya requested Diya to help her in completing her project.

Remember: question mark will be removed and Indirect speech will be started directly

as from the INFINITIVE ( To+V1) as the sentence of Direct Speech is assumed as a ‘request’ not a ‘question’.

Exercise 5

1.My friend said to me , ” Do what you wish.”

2. The doctor said to the patient , ” Have a walk early in the morning daily.”

3. The officer said to  the guard, ” Lock the gate sharp at 6 pm.”

4. ” Have patience and keep on practicing.” ,said Saba to Zeenat

5. Dhruv said, ” Get out of my room and don’t show me your face again.”

6. Nikhil said to Ravita , ” Never waste your energy in such a tedious task.”

8. ” Could you help me to complete this project?” , Jaya said to Nisha.

9. Deepa said, “Would you pay me in cash, please ?”

10 . Divyam said to Rita, ” Behave properly before elders.”

PRACTICE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES

Opt out the correct one:-

1. The master said to the servant,” Bring me a cup of milk.”

The master ordered the servant______a cup of milk.

a. to bring me a cup of tea

b. to bring him a cup of tea.

c. that he must bring him a cup of tea.

Ans. b.

2. He said to Anshika , “Don’t disturb me”

He forbade Anshika _______

a. not to disturb her

b. that she should not disrurb him

c. to disturb him.

Ans.c

3. The sage said, ” Trust in God and do the right.”

The sage advised _______

a. to trust in God and do the right.

b. that trust in God and do the right.

c. Archan said to Sunidhi ,” Please, help me to lift this heavy box. “

4. Archana requested Sunidhi _____lift that heavy box.

a. to please help her to

b. to help her to

5. “Help the helplesss” said Bryan to me.

Brayan advised me _______

a. to help the helpless..

b. that help the helpless.

c. that I must help the helpless.

Ans. a

6. The old man said to the stranger,” could you help me to cross the road?”

The old man ______ the stranger ______

a. asked , if he could help him to cross the road.

b. requested, if he could help him to cross the road.

c. requested, to help him to cross the road.

Ans. c

7. ” Sit down and learn your lesson ,boys.” said the teacher to the students.

The teacher ordered the boys_____

a. to sit down and learn their lesson.

b. to sit down and learn his lesson .

c. that sit down and learn their lesson.

Ans. a

8. She said, ” Would you give me a glass og water ,please?”

She requested _______

a. to give him a glass of water.

b. to give her a glass of water.

c. that give her a glass of water .

Ans.b

REPORTED SPEECH (Part 5): HOW TO CHANGE AN INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE

Basic points to ponder:-

KINDS OF INTERROGATIVE

As we know ,there are two kinds of Interrogative sentences:-

Type 1 – That start with Auxiliary Verb

Type 2 – That start with ‘ Wh family’ words

Type 2 is again sub divided in 2 parts

Type 2a. question words starting with Wh family words

Type 2b. question word starting with ‘How’ ( How much/How many )

TYPE 1

Basic Rules of Changing

HOW TO CHANGE AUXILIARY VERB

( If beginning with helping / auxiliary verb)

a. Said/ said to is changed in ASKED / ENQUIRED OF

( Said to – asked/ enquired of )

NOTE: Some times asked / enquired of is already given

in Reporting Verbs So don’t get confused , they will remain same.

b. Commas / Inverted Commas are converted into if / whether

Comma / Inverted Comma (,  ” “  )-   if/whether

c. Interrogative sentences are changed into Assertive Sentences

Interrogative sentence -Assertive Sentence

i) Interrogative – Positive

ii) Interrogative Negative – Simple Negative

d. Question Mark ( ?)will be chamged into full stop   ( .)

(? )- (. )

Examples:-

Direct : Ananya said to me , “ Does Shweta like chocolate ?”

Ananya asked me if Shweta liked chocolate.

Direct : Rama said to Roshni , “ Do you not like coffee ?”

Rama enquired of Roshni if she did not like coffee.

Direct : Nisha said to Neha, “Did  Avni  return your book ?”

Nisha asked Neha if Avni had returned her book.

Type 1

EXERCISE 4A

a.)( Interrogative starting with helping Verbs)

  1. Ankush said to me , “Can you spare some time for me?”
  2. I said to Nisha , “ Are you not feeling well here”
  3. You said to Arunima, “ Will you lend me your pen?
  4. Sheetal said to Akshat, “ Did you meet Akash yesterday ?”
  5. Anshuman said to Pratibha, “ Had you seen this movie before ?”
  6. Aditi  said , “ Didn’t you look into the matter deeply?”
  7. She said to Sumya,” May I use your pen for some time?
  8. Nishi said to Rachna, “ Won’t you like to have a cup of coffee with me?
  9. Divya said to Shivam, “ Did Naman come to meet you yesterday ?”
  10. Raunak said to Abhishek, “ Have you seen Sagar anywhere ?”

How to change ‘WH FAMILY WORDS’

Basic points to ponder( If Reported :Speech starts with ‘ Wh family’ words-

Type 2a. ( Wh family words)

a. Said to – asked/ enquired of

b. Comma / Inverted Comma (, ” “ ) ——-  No change

‘Whfamily’ words are conjunctions in themselves ( So no extra conjunction )

c. Interrogative Sentences are changed into Assertive sentences

(Interrogative – Assertive)

Interrogative – Positive

Interrogative Negative – Simple Negative

d. Question mark will be replced with full stop.

[(•(?) – ( .)]

Examples:-

Direct : Kajal said to Silky , “ Why does  Anshu waste her time?”

Kajal asked Silky why Anshu wasted her time.

Direct : Stuti  said to Sneha , “ Why did you not join the party with me today ?”

Stuti enquired of Sneha why she had not joined the party with her that day.

Direct : Akriti said to Riya,” When will Anushka come?”

Akriti asked Riya when Anushka would come.

Basic points to ponder:-

HOW TO CHANGE HOW MUCH HOW MANY

Type 2b.

If question words start with ( How Much/ How many)

a. Said to -asked/ enquired of •

  b. Comma/Inverted commas ” “  ——-  No Connector

The question word HOW is a conjunction in itself ( So no extra conjunction is needed)

So How much and How many are never replaced

c. An Interrogative Sentence is changed into Assertive sentence-

Interrogative sentence —-   Assertive Sentence

Interrogative – Positive

Interrogative Negative – Simple Negative(?)  ( .)

Examples:-

Direct : Saurabh said to Shivansh , “ How many apples would you like to have ?.”

Saurabh asked Shivansh how many apples he would like to have.

Direct : Shubham said to Tejas , “ Why did you not join the party with me today ?”

Shubham enquired of Tejas why he had not joined the party with him that day.

Type 2 & 3

EXERCISE 4B

(Interrogative starting with Whfamily Words)

  1. Babita said, “ When are you going to meet me ?
  2. Sneha said to Pakhi , “ Why are you so worried ?
  3. Bhumi said to Anku, “ How many pencils did she buy last week?”
  4. Priyanshu said to Kesri , “ Why are you teasing your friend?”
  5. Kainat said to Saloni , “ Why hadn’t you complete your work till now ?”
  6. “ Where is my mobile ?” said Nidhi to Khushi .
  7. Abhishek said to Rahul, “ Whose book was Ayush asking for ?”
  8. Manas said to Rahim, “ Which watch are you asking for?”
  9. “ How are you ?” asked Riya .
  10. Ridhim said to Ridhima, “ How have you done so the toughest task ?”

Exercise : Choose the correct option

  1. The lady said to the girl,” Do you live in this house?”

The lady asked the girl______

a. that I lived in that house

b. if I lived in that house.

c. if she lived in that house.

Ans. c

2. ” What is this tool for ?” said the girl to her sister.

The girl_____ her sister ________

a. asked- what that tool was made for.

b. asked – what was that toll made for.

c. told that what that tool was made for.

Answer a

3. Ram said to his friend, ” Can you tell me the way to the bus stop ?

Ram ____ his friend_____

a. said – could hetell him the way to the bust stop ?

b. enquired of -if he could tell him the way to the bus stop.

c. asked – if could he tell him the way to the bus stop.

Ans. b

4. The teaher said to Mohit, “Would you like to go on a trip ?”

The teacher enquired of Mohit____

a. if he would like to go on a trip.

b. that he would like to go on a trip

c. would he like to go on a trip

Answer : a

5. ” Where is your umbrella ?” asked Mohit from his sister.

Mohit asked his sister _____

a. where her umbrella was.

b. where her umbrella is.

c. where was her umbrella.

Answer: a

6. Meera said, ” Will you listen to me , Jack ?”

Meera asked Jack _______

a. would he listen to her

b. will he listen to her

c. if he would listen to her

Ans -c

7. Belinda said to elfs, ” Can you bring me the fairest rose ?”

Belinda asked elf if ______

a if they can bring her the fairest rose.

b. if they could bring her the fairest rose

c. could they bring her the fairest rose.

Ans: b

8. Shivam said to Shivani, ” May I use your pen ?”

Shivam asked Shivani ___________.

a. if he might use his pen

b. if I might use your pen

c. if he might use her pen.

Ans: c

REPORTED SPEECH:(Part-4): HOW TO CHANGE THE PERSON /ADVERB OF TIME

Before learning how to change the person of a Reported Speech ,

try to understand the following chart:-

PERSONS & CASES OF A PRONOUN

A Pronoun has 3 persons & 4 cases :-

PersonNominative Case
(Subject)  
Objective
Case
(Object)
Possessive
Case
Reflexive
Case
I    I WeMe UsMy OurMyself / Ourselves
IIYouYouYourYourself/ Yourselves
IIIHe She It TheyHim Her It ThemHis Her Its TheirHimself Herself Itself Themselves
CASES OF PERSON

1. If there is any First Person irrespective of the cases in Reported Speech,it will be changed according to the Person, Number and Gender of the  SUBJECT of the Reporting Verb

Example

DIRECT: Kirti said to me, “I can do my work myself.”

INDIRECT: Kirti told me that she could do her work herself

DIRECT: Aman said to Disha , “ I can do my work myself. ”

INDIRECT: Aman told me that he could do his work himself

1. If there is any First Person in Reported Speech ,it will be changed

      according to the Person, Number and Gender of the  SUBJECT of

      the Reporting Verb

Example

DIRECR: The boys said , “ we can do our work ourselves.”

INDIRECT: The boys said that they could their work themselves.

Exception  

DIRECT: Avni said to Disha , “ We are going to play soon.”

INDIRECT: Avni told Disha that they were going to play soon.

2. ( a) If there is any Second  Person irrespective of the cases in Reported Speech ,

it will be changed according to the Person, Number and Gender

of the OBJECT of  the Reporting Verb

Example:-

DIRECT: Kirti said to me, “You can do your work Yourself.”

INDIRECT: Kirti told me that I could do my work myself.

DIRECT: Aman said to his friends , “You can do our work ourselves.”

INDIRECT: Aman told  his friends that they could do their work themselves.

2.(b)If there is any Second  Person irrespective of the cases in Reported Speech ,

it will be changed according to the Person, Number and Gender

of the OBJECT of  the Reporting Verb

but if you find no object in Reported Speech , you have to the change it according to the 1st /3rd person ( that would be in hidden form) in Reporting Verb i.e. we have to assume it either 1st person /3rd person ,Singular/plural with the clear reading and understanding the Reporting Verb

Eg.

DIRECT: Garima said , “ You are very nice. ”

(Assume Object as FIRST / THIRD PERSON)

INDIRECT: Garima said that I was very nice

or

INDIRECT: Garima said that she was very nice.

or

INDIRECT: Garima said that  he was very nice.

or

INDIRECT: Garima said that they were very nice.

Eg.

DIRECT: Garima said , “ You are a  very nice girl.”

DIRECT: Garima said that she was very nice.

DIRECT: Garima said , “ You are a  very nice boy.”

INDIRECT: Garima said that  he was a very nice boy.

DIRECT: Garima said , “ You are very nice girls.”

INDIRECT: Garima told that they were very nice girls.”

3..If there is any Third Person in Reported Speech ,

   there will not be any kind of change in Person, Number or Gender

 of Reported Speech- (NO CHANGE)

Absence of Object in Reporting Verb

Example:-

DIRECT: Garima said to me , “ She can do her work herself.”

INDIRECT: Garima told me that she could do her work herself.

DIRECT: Garima said said to him, “ He can do his work himself.

INDIRECT: Garima told him that  he could do his work himself.

DIRECT: Garima said , “ They can do their work themselves.”

INDIRECT: Garima said that they could do their work themselves.

Exercise 3

(How to change Person)

  1. He said to me, “ I have finished my work.”
  2. Shikha said to Sunita, “ You must not hurt yourself.”
  3. Garima said to Gita,“ She enjoyed her holidays well.”
  4. Divyansh said, “You are honest.”
  5. Divya said,“She must not waste her time.
  6. Deepak said to me, “ You should meet me tomorrow.”
  7. He said to me, “ I will return your notes tomorrow.”
  8. The teacher said “ You always come to late , Bhawna.”
  9. Deeksha said to me, “ You did not wait for me yesterday.”
  10. Akriti said to Rachna, “I can not talk to you anymore.”

ADVERB OF TIME

In Reported Speech nearness of time and position

are changed in the distance of time or position

REPORTING VERBREPORTED SPEECH
AgoBefore
ComeGo
HenceThence
Hither Thither
NowThen
HereThere
This That
TheseThose
Thusso
TonightThat night
TodayThat day
TomorrowThe next day
The following day
Yesterday The previous day
The day before
Last Previous
HOW TO CHANGE ADVERB

Exercise: How to change Person and Adverb

I. He said to me ,” He is a good reader. “

He told me that _________

a. he was a good reader

b. he had been a good reader.

c. he is a good reader.

Ans. a

2. Drishti says, ” My brother is very bright. “

Dristi says that _____ was very bright.

a. her brother

b. my brother

c. your brother

Ans. a

3. Jennie said to me, ” You must pay attention on your studies now.”

Jennie told me that ______pay attention on _____studies___.”

a. she must – her- ago

b. we must – our- now

c. I must – my – then

Ans. c.

4. The boys said,” We will follow our leader tonight.”

The boys said that _____ would follow ____ leader.

a. they -their- that night

b. we – our- tonight

c. he -his- no change

Ans. a

5. Prakriti says to me her younger sister, “I will return after the sunset.

Prakriti informs her sister that ____ return after the sun set.

a. I would

b. she would

c. he would

Ans. b

6. Ritvik said , ” I could not deliver my lecture yesterday. “

Ritivik said that ____ could not deliver _____ lecture ______.

a. I – my – yesterday

b. he-his-the previous day

c. She- her- the previous day

Ans. b.

7 . Goldy says to Nisha , ” We’ll do it tomorrow.

Goldy tells Nisha that they would do it _____.

a. The next day

b, The previous day

c. tomorrow.

Ans. a

8. Akriti said to Sumit,” Nikhil had come here in school yesterday.”

Ankrit reported Sumit that Nikhil had ___ _ ___in school ___.

a. Gone- there- the previous day

b. Come – here -yesterday

c. Gone – there the following day

Ans. a.

Reported Speech(Part 2 & 3)If Reported Verb is in Present/Future Tense / Past Tense WITH EXERCISES: CBSE BASES REPORTED SPEECH

HOW TO CHANGE THE TENSE OF REPORTED SPEECH

1. HOW TO CHANGE ‘say’ in PRESENT TENSE

PRESENT

Kind of Sentence        Reporting Verb      Reported Speech     Connector
Assertive  Say 
Says
Say to
Says to  
is saying
is saying to
has / have said
has / have said to
has /have been saying
has/ have been saying to

  say
says
tell
tells
is saying
is telling
has / have said
has / have told
has / have been saying
has/have been telling
    that
HOW TO CHANGE ‘SAY’ IN REPORTED SPEECH IN PRESENT TENSE

Sneha says to me,” Nitkita likes to play chess very well”

Sneha tells that Nikita likes to plat cricket.

Ritu has said , “ I have already won the match.”

Ritu has said that she has already won the match.

Deepak is saying , “ Nitin will come here today”

Deepak is saying that Nitin will go there that day.

FUTURE

HOW TO CHANGE ‘SAY’ IN FUTURE TENSE

    Kind of Sentence   Reporting Verb       Reported SpeechConnector
Assertive
Will say
Will say to
Will have said
Will have said to
Will/ shall have been saying
Will/shall have been saying to

Will say
Will tell
Will have said,
Will have told
Will/shall have been saying
Will / shall have been telling
that
Learn with video HOW TO CHANGE THE TENSE OF REPORTED SPEECH

HOW TO CHANGE THE TENSE OF REPORTED SPEECH

PART 1 : IF REPORTING VERB IS IN PRESENT FUTURE TENSE

1. If Reporting Verb is in Present / Future Tense in Direct speech , there will not be any kind of change of Tense in Reported Speech:

eg.

Sneha says to me,” Nitkita likes to play chess very well”

Sneha tells that Nikita likes to plat cricket.

Ritu has said , “ I have already won the match.”

Ritu has said that she has already won the match.

Deepak is saying , “ Nitin will come here today”

Deepak is saying that Nitin will go there that day.

Deepika will say, ” Nikhil will be present tomorrow.”

Deepak will say that Nikhil would be present the next day.

Exercise 1

Please first solve the exercise then check the answers through the link given below.

a. I Radha says ,” Tapan is a nice boy.”

b. Ankita says , ” They enjoyed the game.”

c. “I can’t beat you.” says Abhimanyu to Arjuna.

d. The teacher will say, ” These boys never complete their work.”

e. Ahana will be saying, ” I met with my best friend here Last year.”

f. Samridhi tells  Sukriti ,”Amrita will be playing chess at this time tomorrow.”

g. “If you can not assist me”, says Pushpendra to his friend ” I will not be able to listen

to you in future.”

PART 2: IF REPORTING VERB IS IN PAST TENSE

So if there is a Past Tense in Reporting verb in Direct Speech ,the changes in Reported Speech will take place according to the list given below :-

Direct Speech – Indirect Speech

Present Tense –   Past Tense

Past Tense –   Past Perfect

Past Perfect –    No Change

Past Perfect Continuous- No change

Will/Shall   – Would/ Should ( Be attentive of the Person)

Must –  Must / had to

Can –   could

May –   might

Would/could/should/ ought to

LEARN WIITH VIDEO: Start Timing 5:37

Should might/ might have/had to –

No change

CHANGES IN DETAIL :

WITH EACH PART OF TENSE

DIRECT SPEECHINDIRECT SPEECH
Simple PresentSimple Past
Present ContinuousPast Continuous
Present PerfectPast Perfect
Presnt Perfect ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous
PRESENT
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH
Simple PastPast Perfect
Past ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous
Past PerfectNo Change
Past Perfect ContinuosNo Change
PAST
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH
Will/shallWould/should
CanCould
MayMight
MustMust/ had to
Would/should/could/might/ /ought to /must have/ would have
could have/ should have / ought to have
No change
  HAPPY LEARNING! 
FUTURE / MODALS

HOW TO CHANGE ‘SAY’ IN REPORTED SPEECH:-

   Kind of Sentence                  Reporting Verb              Reported Speech Connector
Assertive  Say  Says Say to Says to Said Said to Told  say says tell Tells ( reports / ) said told told (reported)     that

EXAMPLES:

If Reported Speech is in

Present

Sheetal said  , “ Minakshi likes to fly kite.”

Sheetal said that Meenakshi liked to fly kite.

Akanksha said to Aditya , Minakshi is flying a kite”

Akanksha told Aditya that Minakshi was flying a kite.

Amit said to Anshu , “ Antima has finished her coffee.”

Amit told Anshu that Antima had finished her coffee.

If Reported Speech is in

Past  

Sheetal said  , “ Minakshi liked to fly kite.”

Sheetal said that Minakshi had liked to fly kite.

Akanksha said to Aditya , Minakshi was flying a kite”

Akanksha told Aditya that Minakshi had been flying a kite.

Amit said to Anshu , “ Antima had finished her coffee.”

Amit told Anshu that Antima had finished her coffee.

If Reported Speech is in

Future  

Sheetal said  , “ Minakshi will  fly a kite.”

Sheetal said that Minakshi would fly a kite.

Akanksha said to Aditya , Minakshi will be flying a kite”

Akanksha told Aditya that Minakshi would be flying a kite.

Amit said to Anshu , “ Antima will have finished her coffee.”

Amit told Anshu that Antima would have finished her coffee.

If Reported Speech is in

HOW TO CHANGE MODALS

DIRECT SPEECHINDIRECT SPEECH
Will/shallWould/should
CanCould
MayMight
MustMust/ had to
Would/should/could/might/ /ought to /must have/ would have
could have/ should have / ought to have
No change
   
FUTURE / MODALS

Examples:

Nikita said to me, ” I can not help you right now.”

Nikita told me that she could not help me right then .

Swati said , “I would like to have coffee. “

Swati said that that she would like to have coffee.

UNIVERSAL TRUTH SCIENTIFIC FACTS / HABITUAL SENTENCES

With universal truth/ general or scientific facts/ habitual sentences,

we must never change the Tense of Reported Speech

The teacher said to the students , “ The sun itself is a star.”

The teacher told the students that the sun itself is a star.”

Arjun said  , “ The cat runs after the rat.”

Arjun said  that the cat runs after the rat.

Rahul said to Ankur, “ Avishka always comes late.”

Rahul to Ankur that Avishka always comes late.

Sukriti said to Sanskrti , “Amisha use to have walk early morning .”

Sukriti told Sanskriti that Amisha use to have a walk early morning.

Exercise 2

Please first solve the exercise then check the answers through the link given below.

  1. Richard said, “Julia is writing a letter.”
  2. Ananya said to me. “He swims very well.”
  3. The sage said,” God loves all .”
  4. “ Ananya has been writing a poem since the last 2 hours”, said Disha to Nisha.
  5. The musician  said, “True music pours out from the hearts naturally.”
  6. Divya said, “ God saves those who save themselves.”
  7. He said, “ Angel has completed her work.”
  8. Ritvik said to me, I shall leave for  Vijayanagar soon.”
  9. “Cynthia is the Moon goddess according to Greek mythology.”, told the teacher to her students.
  10. “Nikita,”said Ashu to Gazala, “had not met with her sister yet.”

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