With all the ups and downs in our lives and making our lives hell, COVID 19  has gifted OXFORD DICTIONARY some new words. You will find here some words resembling the old words and at the same time, you will notice some words never used before. After the meanings of the words, I have added here one quiz also so that you could learn the meanings of the words more properly.

Following are the words that have been added in the Oxford Dictionary-


       – a cocktail typically drunk during  the self-isolation

         ex – Payal was advised to keep on     

               having QUARANTINI  to recover 

               herself soon from this 

              killing disease.



       – someone who ignores health

         advice about COVID 19

        ex-  Arun never wears a mask 

         while leaving his home. He is

         really a COVIDIOT.


  1. ZUMP 

    – be dumped via zoom during 

      quarantine/ be careless while 

       having  online classes.

     ex- Most of the students used 

     ZUMP during online classes.



    – a tendency of doing over online 

      shopping during lockdown

      ex. The virus of ‘being spendemic’ 

      entered into our homes more fastly than         the virus of COVID 19. 



      -the practice of having a safe 

       distance in order to prevent to 

       spread of the disease


      ex- Dear students, try to be 

      social bubbles in your classrooms 

      in order to prevent yourselves 

     from the attack of a new virus.


A cocktail typically drunk during the self-isolation

Correct! Wrong!

A tendency of doing over online shopping during lockdown

Correct! Wrong!

The practice of having a safe distance in order to prevent to spread the disease

Correct! Wrong!

Be dumped via zoom during quarantine/ be careless while having online classes. Most of the students used to ZUMP during online classes.

Correct! Wrong!

Someone who ignores health advice about COVID 19

Correct! Wrong!


Share your Results:

Which word/words did you like the most,please mention in the comment box below-


REPORTED SPEECH RULES: NARRATION: INDIRECT SPEECH (Part1): Introduction: What is a Reported Speech / Narration?


Reported Speech is a formation of a sentence that we tell to someone, i.e.to the second person.

Thus based on a conversation, the words of the speaker can be formed in two ways:-




Thus two kinds of speeches came into existence

Direct Speech:

The teacher said to the monitor, “ I will be on a leave tomorrow. So collect the notebooks from all the students today only for correction.”

(When the speaker is directly saying something to the listener or when we are repeating the words of the speaker to the third person, is called Direct Speech.)

Indirect Speech:

The teacher told the monitor that she would be on a leave the next day and ordered her to collect all the notebooks from the students that day only.

( Thus when the listener is repeating the words of the speaker to the third person in roundabout a manner ,is called Indirect Speech. )

Parts of Direct Speech:-

Now comes the formation of a Direct Speech-

 There are two parts of a Direct Speech: –

  • Reporting Verb
  • Reported Speech

Ankit said to Ankita , “ Ridhima reads very well.”

(Reporting Verb)     (Reported Speech )

The part or clause that comes outside of the inverted commas ,is called Reporting Verb. The part that is locked inside the inverted commas, is called Reported Speech.


The position of the Reporting verb & Reported Speech can be anywhere in the sentence :-

eg.   Ankit said to Ankita , “ Ridhima is a very nice girl.”

“Ridhima” said Ankit to Ankita, “ is a very nice girl.”

“ Ridhima is a very nice girl.” Ankit said to Ankita .

All the lines in green are Reporting verbs. That makes clear that it is not mandatory to have a reporting verb at the beginning of the sentence. Its position can be shifted according to the style of writing.

How to recognize a Direct and an Indirect Sentence :-

How to Recognize a Direct Speech:-

  • The reported sentence is locked in the inverted commas.
    • Antima said , “Do you know  Anuj?”
  • After Reporting Verb, we put a comma. 
    • Antima said , “Do you know  Anuj?”
  • The first letter of reported speech that is locked inside the inverted commas ,is  written in  capital letters.
    • Antima said , “Do you know  Anuj?”
How to Recognize an Indirect Speech:-
  • The reported sentence is unlocked from the inverted commas.
    • Ritika said that she was her best friend.
  • Commas are replaced with the conjunctions i.e. ( that/if /whether )according to the expression of the sentences. 
    • Ritika said that she was her best friend.

Common  Rules of changing a Direct Speech into Indirect Speech:-

  • Inverted commas are removed in Reported speech
  • Commas are replaced with conjunctions i.e. ( that/if /whether ) as per the expression of the sentences.
  • Never change the Tense of a Reporting Verb. Only the Tense of Reported Speech is changed if Reported Verb is Past Tense.


Direct : Namita says to Nisha , “Mishti likes to play chess”

Indirect: Namita tells Nisha that Mishti likes to play chess. •

Direct: Danish said to Salman , “ I Visited Delhi last Monday”

Indirect : Danish told Salman that he had visited Delhi the previous Monday.

General rules of changing a Direct Speech into Indirect Speech:-

I. Common Changes – applied in the complete Indirect Speech

II . Expression Changes – varies according to the different expressions

i.e. Kinds of sentences

They are again sub divided in the following parts-

I . Common Changes – applied in the complete Indirect Speech

a.Change of Tense

b. Change of Pronoun

c. Change of Time and place •

Read and understand the following sentences and the chart before going further in the detailed study of Change of Tense , Pronoun or Time and Space-

How to change Say / said of Reporting Verb according to different kinds

of sentences :-

Sentence Reporting Verb     Reported Speech Connector
Assertive   Say 
Say to
Says to
Said to
said to
( reports / reported) 
Interrogative Say /Says / Say to/ Says to / Said/Said to   Told      asked/ enquired of     If / whether
Imperative Request   Order     Advice    requested ordered /commanded advised       Connector {to}  
  Proposal   Making proposal  proposed to / suggested to   
                   Exclamatory Sorrow   Happiness Surprise Exclaimed with sorrow   Exclaimed with joy/happiness   Exclaimed with surprise   that  
 Optative Wish Curse wished/blessed cursed     that (In some cases without connectors)



Ankita says, ” Harsh is my brother.

Shikha says to Nisha, ” Ridhima studies with me. “

Akhil said , “ I can not come to meet you here tomorrow.”

Namita said to me , ” Anubhav has been working hard since last night.”

Nitin said me , ” Will you also go to Goa?”

Rishika said to me , ” Do you have my book?”

Dinesh said to Mayank, ” Return me my bike.”

Simran said to me , ” Please, help me in completing my project.”

Siya said me , ” Have a deep sleep for 6 hours a day.

Babita said to me,” Let’s play tennis.”

Akriti said to Divyani , ” Let’s participate in the quiz. “

Gargi said, “Hurrah ! I have won a trophy.”

Shivani said to me ,” Alas! I have met with an accident.”

Aditi said , ” What a beautiful flower it is !”

Garvit said, “May God bless you !”

Vikram said to his friends , ” May you go to hell !”


Ankita tells that Harsh is her brother.

Akhil told Nitesh that he could not go to meet him there the next day.

Shikha tells Nisha that Ridhima studies with her.

Akhil said that he could not meet him there the previous day.

Namita told me that Anubhav had been working hard since last night.

Nitin asked me if I would also go to Goa.

Rishika enquired of me if I had her book.

Dinesh ordered Mayank to return his bike.

Simran requested me to help her in competing her project.

Siya adviced me to have a deep sleep for 6 hours a day.

Babita proposed to me that we should play tennis.

Akriti suggested to Divyani that we must participate in the quiz.

Gargi exclaimed with joy that she had won a trophy.

Shivani exclaimed me with sorrow that she had met with an accident.

Aditi exclaimed with surprise that it was a beautiful flower.

Garvit wished that God might bless me.

Vikram cursed his friend that he might go to hell.


Words before you start !

Welcome Learners !


I’m Meena Bilandani, M.A. (English)+Bachelor of Education, pursuing my passion of teaching for more than 15 years. I spend most of my time with my students and with my never-ending learning over here world’s most

spiritual land INDIA..


Let’s begin a new journey!

Grammar learning is not an easy task. It is a tough row to hoe. A lot of practice with constant learning then assimilating within is really a constant journey in itself that needs immense patience to carry on. Speaking and writing any language within a proper framing in a restricted structure, is really an art.

“ Grammar in spoken English is not needed ”, is only a prevalent myth. Yes, for beginners just to encourage them we say not to stick with a heavy set of burden and keep on speaking, especially when the speaker belongs to a regional medium or residing completely in a native environment. But they need not learn grammar, is completely be fooling themselves.

It is exactly like shooting an arrow without a bow. Yes, you can hit an arrow perfectly sometimes, but for a perfect pace ,you need a bow. Yes, of course, if you are growing up under a completely English environment or studying in a school where the native language is strictly restricted to speak,. They learn naturally the things and subconsciously, they use to speak a sentence in a correct framing naturally as they have been provided an environment under which they understand grammatically the sentence is correct .

With my own experience of teaching almost all kinds of board students, I have found, students from completely native background, most of the times pass through the verb mistakes which leave often very awkward situation if they have not studied tenses properly. While students of completely English Medium background pass through part of speech errors which can be actually, not always but often negligible.

So, speaking English in an incorrect framing of tense leaves more awkward situation than misuses of other parts of speeches.

Yes, students from English Medium often argue that they have learned English without learning Tenses, they are actually true but they are unaware of the fact that they have learnt tenses automatically with a practical environment still they are not much confident with their grammar which may lead them in problem in future competitive examinations.
And students from native background sometimes try to give examples of such students without understanding the fact that they have got a practical environment.

So as far as I could understand with my own lifelong experience, they can learn English at the first step with the translation method only, then gradually they can acquire constant understanding by continuous writing and having a practical approach. So native speakers, please don’t leave excuses, for learning English there is no need of learning Tense.

Yes, at the beginning level, you must not hesitate, you must try to speak but that doesn’t mean you need not learn and understand grammar. If you are learning grammar with learning Spoken English, it’s all like honey on your sugar cube. You must go parallel if you wish to enhance your writing skill also. But all four skills , whether it’s reading or writing,speaking or listening , everything is needed for comprehending any language.

So for such kinds of learners . ultimately, I am presenting here my Grammar lessons with videos and notes accompanied with exercises. I am presenting here my life long learning of Grammar which could be very helpful for my students in learning the English Language not only in enhancing speaking skills but writing skills as well.

Hope you’ll like all the lessons prepared by me by my hard efforts, and try to leave your precious suggestions.

Thank You !

Happy Learning !


Topics to be covered:-

  • The complete explanation of each Grammar topic
  • Video Lectures
  • Exercises for practice after each topic
  • Quizzes



This content is password protected. To view it please enter your password below:


This content is password protected. To view it please enter your password below:


This content is password protected. To view it please enter your password below:


This content is password protected. To view it please enter your password below:


Some grammatical rules always leave confusion and controversy so is the one with  “Time and tide WAITS for none’ or ‘Time and TIde WAIT for none’. Before understanding it deeply. Just have a look at some of the examples-

  1. Bread and butter is my only breakfast.

2. Slow and steady always wins the race.

3.  Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy wealthy and wise.

 These are some of the examples that present a single idea. See one more example. 

4. Rice and curry is my favourite dish.

So now the matter is -if we see ‘Time and tide’ as a single idea, grammatically WINS must be the correct answer.  But because it is a proverb, it was said only as ‘ Time and Tide WAIT for none.’ So proverbs are always taken as they are-

( The proverb is originally taken from the year 1225. Certified to St. Mather .

The origin is uncertain, although it’s clear that the phrase is ancient and that it predates modern English. The earliest known record is from St. Marher, 1225:

“And te tide and te time þat tu iboren were, schal beon iblescet.” ( German)

A version in modern English – “the tide abides for, tarrieth for no man, stays no man, tide nor time tarrieth no man” evolved into the present-day version.)
So finally was translated it into modern English again. Might be the one who translated it , had kept the rules in mind ( taking Time and Tide separately not as a single unity ) that’s why use of verb 1 came into the use of this proverb.)

 We can’t apply grammatical rules when it comes to the matter of Proverbs. So in this sense – we have to accept it as ‘ Time and tide wait for none ‘

Still Grammatically the sentence ‘ Time and tide waits for none, is also acceptable. 

So in a sense, both the sentences are correct.  Now it depends on you how you wish to speak it.  

And as far as I understand, due to having controversy in the sentences, in the examination, this question might not be asked from you or they might not give you the options that might violate one another.  

Hope this article has been useful for you.  Still, if you wish to say anything, kindly leave your positive thoughts and reviews.

Thank You!









Comprehension Passage Day 1 : (Strike)

  • Read all the questions attentively
  • Fill in your contact form before beginning
  • Keep on checking your time limit
  • Try to set your own time limit goal
  • Starting 1st day passage must be completed witin 20 min
  • From day 2 to day 7 the time limit will be set for 15 min only
  • And finally from day 8 to day 10 time limit will be set only for 10 min
  • Welcome for positive reviews and Suggegestions

What is new yesterday, becomes absolute today. Everything moves at a fast pace. But strangely enough students’ strikes have not changed a wee bit. Maybe because of the fact that out of about 3000, students in a college, only a handful come equipped with books, notebooks or a pen. 2. The only perceptible change is that a majority of them come on expensive motorbikes and quite a few carry mobiles in their hands.

3. Small wonder that whatever any small group of so-called leaders persuades these time-pass students to go on strikes, maybe on as flimsy an issue as that of the size of a samosa in the canteen, they readily oblige.

4. In fact, just a few “hay-hay” calls are sufficient to gather a number of giggling groups that soon turn into a mob.

5. Let us have a closer look at the student agitation that has rocked City Colleges now for weeks.

6. A recent few hikes and alleged disparity in fund collection among local Colleges affiliated to Punjab University is reported to be the “immediate cause”.

7. Its immediacy can well be gauged from the fact that the first instalment of the hiked fee was deposited by students a few months ago without a moan!

8. Waste of valuable teaching time apart, a few ill-advised students went to resorting to self-inflicting violence for the “cause.” All this led to a volatile situation that embarrassed the university authorities, being the venue of the strike.

9. The situation eased temporarily after the intervention of politicians who met the authorities that be and issued high sounding statements in favour of the student of the community.

10. Fund, fee or samosa, whatever the issue, the student community should realise that while losing valuable paid learning time they cannot justify their demand for reducing the alleged financial fee/ fund hike.

11. Before asking for concessions or fee fund reduction, they should grab what they have already paid for. It is high time that they ask for more teaching hours than what is stipulated for them. Paying for 100 lectures and asking for 65 is simply a ridiculous demand and not worth a strike.

Welcome to your Comprehension Passage Day 1 ( Strike)






Chapter 3 USE TO TO BE ( IS ARE AM )

With the study point of view, I have categorized this part in 5 sections –

I. Simple Present Tense ( without the use of main verb) 

  1. Use of ‘to be’ in present
  2. Use of  ‘have’

II. Use of Dummy Subject 

a .There

b.  It

III. Main Indefinite form of the verb.

I. Simple Present Tense ( without the use of main verb)

Use of ‘to be’ in present

( In Simple Present ‘to be’ means – is/are/am- 


Use of  is, are, and am shows the present state/condition of our subject.

Example- This is a chair.

                  The weather is fine.

                   He is a doctor.

(to be) is, are, am.

How to use is, are, am in a sentence,

Singular- Is

Plural- Are

First person- (I) – Am

Structure of Affirmative Sentence-

Subject+ is, are, am+ complement

Example- Ravita is a lawyer

                 You are Happy.

                  I am a teacher.

Structure of Negative Sentence-

Subject+ is, are, am + not + complement

Example- Shivangi is not happy today.

                 You are not a thief.

                 I am not your friend.


Structure of Interrogative Sentences- 


Is, are am, + subject+ complement

Example- Are you sad?

                 Are they players?


Structure of Interrogative Sentence- 

W family word + is, are, am+  subject+ complement

Example- Why are you sad?

Type 3

How/much/how many/ Whose/which+ Related Noun+ is/are/am _ Subject +Complement

Example- Whose bag is

              this on the chair?

               How many girls               

               are there in the kitchen ?

               Which book is yours ?

Interrogative Negative 

The structures of all kinds of Interrogative is almost same .

We only need to add NOT after the Subject


 …….. is/are/am+ subject + not —–

Example- Is Rajeev not a monitor?

                  Why are you not happy?

                  Whose watch is not this ?


error: Content is protected !!
%d bloggers like this: