With all the ups and downs in our lives and making our lives hell, COVID 19 has gifted OXFORD DICTIONARY some new words. You will find here some words resembling the old words and at the same time, you will notice some words never used before. After the meanings of the words, I have added here one quiz also so that you could learn the meanings of the words more properly.
Following are the words that have been added in the Oxford Dictionary-
– a cocktail typically drunk during the self-isolation
ex – Payal was advised to keep on
having QUARANTINI to recover
herself soon from this
– someone who ignores health
advice about COVID 19
ex- Arun never wears a mask
while leaving his home. He is
really a COVIDIOT.
– be dumped via zoom during
quarantine/ be careless while
having online classes.
ex- Most of the students used
ZUMP during online classes.
– a tendency of doing over online
shopping during lockdown
ex. The virus of ‘being spendemic’
entered into our homes more fastly than the virus of COVID 19.
-the practice of having a safe
distance in order to prevent to
spread of the disease
ex- Dear students, try to be
social bubbles in your classrooms
in order to prevent yourselves
from the attack of a new virus.
QUIZ : CHECK HOW MUCH YOU HAVE LEARNT
A cocktail typically drunk during the self-isolation
A tendency of doing over online shopping during lockdown
The practice of having a safe distance in order to prevent to spread the disease
Be dumped via zoom during quarantine/ be careless while having online classes.
Most of the students used to ZUMP during online classes.
Someone who ignores health advice about COVID 19
COVID INSPIRED WORDS
Share your Results:
Which word/words did you like the most,please mention in the comment box below-
Reported Speech is a formation of a sentence that we tell to someone, i.e.to the second person.
Thus based on a conversation, the words of the speaker can be formed in two ways:-
Thus two kinds of speeches came into existence
The teacher said to the monitor, “ I will be on a leave tomorrow. So collect the notebooks from all the students today only for correction.”
(When the speaker is directly saying something to the listener or when we are repeating the words of the speaker to the third person, is called Direct Speech.)
The teacher told the monitor that she would be on a leave the next day and ordered her to collect all the notebooks from the students that day only.
( Thus when the listener is repeating the words of the speaker to the third person in roundabout a manner ,is called Indirect Speech. )
Parts of Direct Speech:-
Now comes the formation of a Direct Speech-
There are two parts of a Direct Speech: –
Ankit said to Ankita , “ Ridhima reads very well.”
(Reporting Verb)(Reported Speech )
The part or clause that comes outside of the inverted commas ,is called Reporting Verb. The part that is locked inside the inverted commas, is called Reported Speech.
The position of the Reporting verb & Reported Speech can be anywhere in the sentence :-
eg. Ankit said to Ankita , “ Ridhima is a very nice girl.”
“Ridhima” said Ankit to Ankita, “ is a very nice girl.”
“ Ridhima is a very nice girl.” Ankit said to Ankita .
All the lines in green are Reporting verbs. That makes clear that it is not mandatory to have a reporting verb at the beginning of the sentence. Its position can be shifted according to the style of writing.
How to recognize a Direct and an Indirect Sentence :-
How to Recognize a Direct Speech:-
The reported sentence is locked in the inverted commas.
Antima said , “Do you know Anuj?”
After Reporting Verb, we put a comma.
Antima said , “Do you know Anuj?”
The first letter of reported speech that is locked inside the inverted commas ,is written in capital letters.
Antima said , “Do you know Anuj?”
How to Recognize an Indirect Speech:-
The reported sentence is unlocked from the inverted commas.
Ritika said that she was her best friend.
Commas are replaced with the conjunctions i.e. ( that/if /whether )according to the expression of the sentences.
Ritika said that she was her best friend.
Common Rules of changing a Direct Speech into Indirect Speech:-
Inverted commas are removed in Reported speech
Commas are replaced with conjunctions i.e. ( that/if /whether ) as per the expression of the sentences.
Never change the Tense of a Reporting Verb. Only the Tense of Reported Speech is changed if Reported Verb is Past Tense.
Direct : Namita says to Nisha , “Mishti likes to play chess”
Indirect: Namita tells Nisha that Mishti likes to play chess. •
Direct: Danish said to Salman , “ I Visited Delhi last Monday”
Indirect : Danish told Salman that he had visited Delhi the previous Monday.
General rules of changing a Direct Speech into Indirect Speech:-
I. Common Changes – applied in the complete Indirect Speech
II . Expression Changes – varies according to the different expressions
i.e. Kinds of sentences
They are again sub divided in the following parts-
I . Common Changes – applied in the complete Indirect Speech
a.Change of Tense
b. Change of Pronoun
c. Change of Time and place •
Read and understand the following sentences and the chart before going further in the detailed study of Change of Tense , Pronoun or Time and Space-
How to change Say / said of Reporting Verb according to different kinds
of sentences :-
Say Says Say to Says to Said Said to Told
say says tell tells said to told ( reports / reported)
Say /Says / Say to/ Says to / Said/Said to Told
asked/ enquired of
If / whether
Request Order Advice
requested ordered /commanded advised
proposed to / suggested to
Sorrow Happiness Surprise
Exclaimed with sorrow Exclaimed with joy/happiness Exclaimed with surprise
that (In some cases without connectors)
HOW TO CHANGE SAY /SAID
Ankita says, ” Harsh is my brother.
Shikha says to Nisha, ” Ridhima studies with me. “
Akhil said , “ I can not come to meet you here tomorrow.”
Namita said to me , ” Anubhav has been working hard since last night.”
Nitin said me , ” Will you also go to Goa?”
Rishika said to me , ” Do you have my book?”
Dinesh said to Mayank, ” Return me my bike.”
Simran said to me , ” Please, help me in completing my project.”
Siya said me , ” Have a deep sleep for 6 hours a day.
Babita said to me,” Let’s play tennis.”
Akriti said to Divyani , ” Let’s participate in the quiz. “
Gargi said, “Hurrah ! I have won a trophy.”
Shivani said to me ,” Alas! I have met with an accident.”
Aditi said , ” What a beautiful flower it is !”
Garvit said, “May God bless you !”
Vikram said to his friends , ” May you go to hell !”
Ankita tells that Harsh is her brother.
Akhil told Nitesh that he could not go to meet him there the next day.
Shikha tells Nisha that Ridhima studies with her.
Akhil said that he could not meet him there the previous day.
Namita told me that Anubhav had been working hard since last night.
Nitin asked me if I would also go to Goa.
Rishika enquired of me if I had her book.
Dinesh ordered Mayank to return his bike.
Simran requested me to help her in competing her project.
Siya adviced me to have a deep sleep for 6 hours a day.
Babita proposed to me that we should play tennis.
Akriti suggested to Divyani that we must participate in the quiz.
Gargi exclaimed with joy that she had won a trophy.
Shivani exclaimed me with sorrow that she had met with an accident.
Aditi exclaimed with surprise that it was a beautiful flower.
Garvit wished that God might bless me.
Vikram cursed his friend that he might go to hell.
I’m Meena Bilandani, M.A. (English)+Bachelor of Education, pursuing my passion of teaching for more than 15 years. I spend most of my time with my students and with my never-ending learning over here world’s most
spiritual land INDIA..
Let’s begin a new journey!
Grammar learning is not an easy task. It is a tough row to hoe. A lot of practice with constant learning then assimilating within is really a constant journey in itself that needs immense patience to carry on. Speaking and writing any language within a proper framing in a restricted structure, is really an art.
“ Grammar in spoken English is not needed ”, is only a prevalent myth. Yes, for beginners just to encourage them we say not to stick with a heavy set of burden and keep on speaking, especially when the speaker belongs to a regional medium or residing completely in a native environment. But they need not learn grammar, is completely be fooling themselves.
It is exactly like shooting an arrow without a bow. Yes, you can hit an arrow perfectly sometimes, but for a perfect pace ,you need a bow. Yes, of course, if you are growing up under a completely English environment or studying in a school where the native language is strictly restricted to speak,. They learn naturally the things and subconsciously, they use to speak a sentence in a correct framing naturally as they have been provided an environment under which they understand grammatically the sentence is correct .
With my own experience of teaching almost all kinds of board students, I have found, students from completely native background, most of the times pass through the verb mistakes which leave often very awkward situation if they have not studied tenses properly. While students of completely English Medium background pass through part of speech errors which can be actually, not always but often negligible.
So, speaking English in an incorrect framing of tense leaves more awkward situation than misuses of other parts of speeches.
Yes, students from English Medium often argue that they have learned English without learning Tenses, they are actually true but they are unaware of the fact that they have learnt tenses automatically with a practical environment still they are not much confident with their grammar which may lead them in problem in future competitive examinations. And students from native background sometimes try to give examples of such students without understanding the fact that they have got a practical environment.
So as far as I could understand with my own lifelong experience, they can learn English at the first step with the translation method only, then gradually they can acquire constant understanding by continuous writing and having a practical approach. So native speakers, please don’t leave excuses, for learning English there is no need of learning Tense.
Yes, at the beginning level, you must not hesitate, you must try to speak but that doesn’t mean you need not learn and understand grammar. If you are learning grammar with learning Spoken English, it’s all like honey on your sugar cube. You must go parallel if you wish to enhance your writing skill also. But all four skills , whether it’s reading or writing,speaking or listening , everything is needed for comprehending any language.
So for such kinds of learners . ultimately, I am presenting here my Grammar lessons with videos and notes accompanied with exercises. I am presenting here my life long learning of Grammar which could be very helpful for my students in learning the English Language not only in enhancing speaking skills but writing skills as well.
Hope you’ll like all the lessons prepared by me by my hard efforts, and try to leave your precious suggestions.
The word ‘ TENSE’ was originally derived from Latin word TENDERE . The meaning of which was TIME . Then with the passage of the time , the form of the word had been changed and was called as TENSUS . Then again it was transformed as TENS when it was adopted by French Language. Finally Middle English adopted the same and gave it a present form as TENSE.
Latin-Tendere -Tensus- Time
French- Tens- Time
Middle English- Tense- Time
Definition of Tense-
“Tense is that form of a verb which not only shows the time of
Then finally write in 2 to 3 paragraphs according to the given word limit
1. Kind of Character :-
2. How to Start:-
Try to start with quote / famous saying relatable to the character.
For the Character Sketch of Gautam Buddha:-
“ A great tree grows from two soft leaves to spread its shade after.”
Righly writes Edwin Arnold in his book ‘Light of Asia’
for Gutam Buddha an apostle whose sacrifices
can never be forgotten. Gautam Buddha was born……
THE BEST FRAMMAR BOOK
3. Name of Chapter and Writer
Try to mention the name of the author of the chapter from where the
character has been taken.
4. Leading / Secondary Character…..
You can also mention the character is the leading one or the secondary one
5. Basic traits of the character
Divide them in Positive and Negative
Note: Don’t write charcter in points /headings.
Write only in Paragraph
f. Connect your line with the dialogue
The Bus conductor was really an amusing personality. He would always cut jokes to make the passengers laugh and create the atmosphere light. When Vali insists not to call her a child, he begins to call
Her.“ Madam”, “ May we start now Madam?”
“Everyone move aside please… make way for madam.”
7. Why you like/dislike that character
8. What your leant from that charcter
Character Sketch of Gutam Buddha
“A great tree grows from two soft leaves to spread its shade after.”
Righly writes Edwin Arnold in his book ‘Light of Asia’ for Gautam buddha an apostle whose sacrifices can never be forgotten. Gautam Buddha was born 563B.C. in a royal family of northern India but was less fortunate , He couldn’t
enjoy his prince hood more than twenty years.
very sensitive by nature, he renounced the world of luxury coming across human suffering, sickness, old age and death. His strong will power couldn’t shake him to leave his princely life and family which he loved a lot . He attained enlightenment after undergoing a long period of renunciation and hardships. He wandered for seven long years and finally sat down under a peepal tree in mediation and finally came to be known as the Buddha.
He was a selfless soul who shared even his wisdom and enightment to eliminate human sufferings.
He had a deep psychological insight. He handled Kisa Gotami’s grief not only by uttering words of wisdom, but by making her realise the reality of birth and death by letting her experience personally.
When he asked her for mustard seeds, he added , “ The musturard seed must be taken from a house where no one has lost a child husband, parent or friend.”
Thus the life of Gautam Buddha teaches us how to recognize – ‘self ’ & never hesitate to leave our weaknesses and worldly pleasures on the path of human services.
A very warm & cheerful morning to each and everyone present here./
A very pleasant noon to everyone present here./
A very sweet & evening to each and everyone present here.
I am _______ S/O or D/O Mr ______ & Mrs ______.( Parents Name) I belong to a well to do family of _______. ( City Name) Right now I am pursuing class ______.I have ___siblings . My father is a ________. My mother is a ______. If I talk about my hobbies ,I love to______. Besides this ,I like to _______ also. Then comes the goal of my life. If I tell you honestly- because I am just in class ______ , my visions are many but ultimately I have to opt for any honourable profession for earning my livelihood. I wish to be a/an_______. Because sometimes I feel like I have been made only for this profession . But before being anyone, I wish to be a humble and honest person and wish to make the people around me happy . Thank you everyone for listening me with patience.
Note: It is only an example . You can make changes wherever youwish to.
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HOW TO WRITE A DAILY ROUTINE
Useful Phrases- used for writing a daily routine
Leave my bed/wake up
After refreshing myself
Next, I have my breakfast…
Leave for my school
After passing a cheerful/ hectic day
Nap for sometime
Take dinner/ lunch at Watch T.V.
Surf through internet
Have dinner/lunch around
Finally retire to my bed at____
How to start
Good morning/evening everyone
My name is / I am ——— and I am going to share with you my usual day routine.
I always leave my bed early in the morning at 7 o’clock then I wash my face and brush my teeth. After that, I have my exercises/ go for a walk / do meditation. After having my shower,I worship for sometime . Next, I have my breakfast and leave for my school at 8 am. I wait for the school bus and catch it sharp at ____ . After that, I have my lunch break around 11:30 . After passing a cheerful day in my school, I return to home at 1:30 pm. Then I have my lunch and nap for sometime. Them I go to attend my coaching classes from 4:00 pm to 6:pm. Next, I usually watch some TV with my family . In the meanwhile, I surf my internet and chat with my friends. Then I do my homework and help my mother in the house./ father in his work. Then I study for 2 hours . At 8:30 , I have my dinner and go for a walk for 10 to 15 min. After that I do self study for half an hour and plan my next day’s schedule. Finally, I retire to my bed at 10:00.
Thanks everyone for listening me with patience.
It is only an example. Change it according to your own routine/ time table.
This beautiful and mesmerizing poem Tartary has been composed by Walter de la Mare, often produced work of mystery. So the poet here again shares with us another piece of his mysterious work and expresses us his idea of an imaginary land . He calls it as Tartary. He says that he wishes to be the sole owner of Tartary where he would enjoy a royal life .In his royal kingdom ,he would have grand rooms containing his beds made of ivory . He adds further that under his royal life he will have a royal mealtime which must be filled up with melodious sounds of various musical instrumentsnt.
He would also enjoy his evenings filled up with colourful lamps emitting yellowish and reddish lights.
He again describes that the forest of his dream world would be the inhabitat of various beautiful birds and wild animals as well. The enchanted trees of his forests would be the reasons of the attraction of many malodious birds. The sweet scented breeze would leave the forest of Tartary with fragrance.
He would also have grand pools where various colourful fishes would dance across the colourful
Finally he shares with us that he would be the sole owner of clear rills and sea of Tartary with its purple valleys.
Thus this imaginary kingdom would please the poet all the time. All the beautiful natural objects mentioned by the poet shows his deep love for nature.
Read the extract carefully and answer the question those follow :-
If I were Lord of Tartary, Trumpeters every day To all my meals should summon me, And in my courtyards bray; And in the evening lamps should shine, Yellow as honey, red as wine, While harp, and flute, and mandoline Made music sweet and gay.
Q. a. Tell the name of the poem from which the above extract has been taken. Ans Tartary Q.b. Tell the name of the poet. Ans . Walter de la Mare Q.c. What is Tartary mentioned according to this poet ? Ans. An imaginary land. Q.d What kind of musical instruments would be played during his mealtime ? Ans. Trumpet harp, and flute, and mandoline Q.e Tell the rhyming words used in the above extraxt . Tartary, Day Bray , gay Q.f. Tell the rhyming scheme used by the poet in the above extract. a a b a c c c a
EXTRACT 2 If I were Lord of Tartary, I’d wear a robe of beads, White, and gold, and green they’d be — And small and thick as seeds;
Q a. Tell the meaning of robe . Ans. Clothes / long overcoat of kings Q.b Tell the different colours of beads the poet wishes to have in his robe ? And. While, gold and green Q.c Rhyming words and scheme used in the above EXTRACT. Ans. Beads seads Q.d What would be thick and small as seeds ? Ans. Beads Q.e Tell the poetic device used in the last line. Ans.Simile