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MODAL QUIZ: GRAMMAR QUIZ: QUIZ ON CAN COULD MAY MIGHT SHOULD MUST OUGHT TO

MODAL AUXILIARY INTRODUCTION

CAN vs COULD

Modal is a word derived from a Latin word means

Correct! Wrong!

Modal auxiliary verbs show

Correct! Wrong!

There are basically ____ kinds of verbs

Correct! Wrong!

The other name of the helping verb is

Correct! Wrong!

To be, to have, to do -are parts of

Correct! Wrong!

Semi Auxiliary is a part of ______ verbs

Correct! Wrong!

Need, Dare and Use to are parts of

Correct! Wrong!

After Modal Auxilary Verbs , We use

Correct! Wrong!

Which is the correct sentence ?

Correct! Wrong!

Modal Auxiliary always takes

Correct! Wrong!

Tap the correct sentences

Correct! Wrong!

There are ____kinds of Semi-modals

Correct! Wrong!

1. Akshat____swim fast when he lived in Haridwar.

Correct! Wrong!

2. Just wait . I ____ finish my work within the given time limit.

Correct! Wrong!

3. ______ you please provide me 100 rs change,sir ?I had to leave for the station in a hurry.

Correct! Wrong!

4. ____ you shift a little please, my dear friend ?

Correct! Wrong!

5. I am afraid, I ______ play anymore. I am a lot of tired.

Correct! Wrong!

6. Why didn’t you participate ? You ______ won the race.

Correct! Wrong!

7. I went to every drugstore, but I ______ the medicine.

Correct! Wrong!

8. Oh, great ! You have cooked the complete dinner. ____ I help you to make chapatis ?

Correct! Wrong!

9. If I had listened to my teachers, I ______ led a happy life today.

Correct! Wrong!

10. I ______ solve this problem very easily.

Correct! Wrong!

MAY vs MIGHT

SHOULD MUST OUGHT TO

____ you always be happy !

Correct! Wrong!

_______ I use your phone please? It’s urgent ,I have forgotten mine at home.

Correct! Wrong!

Arpita reported that she ______ not join the party .

Correct! Wrong!

It ____ be very expensive, but it’s much better than the others.

Correct! Wrong!

Ankit tells Richa that she ____ be late today.

Correct! Wrong!

I was just wondering whether you ____ be able to help me.

Correct! Wrong!

Might shows:-

Correct! Wrong!

He has broken his leg. He _____ win the race.

Correct! Wrong!

He is suffering from high fever. He _____ take the exam today. Still we must wait for him sometime before catching the bus.

Correct! Wrong!

The farmer is working hard on his field so that he _______ have a good crop this year.

Correct! Wrong!

MAY vs MIGHT
Your Score

Share your Results:

1. What ____I do now?

Correct! Wrong!

2. ______ we not listen to our elders ?

Correct! Wrong!

3. The preachers _______ follow the spiritual path first then preach others.

Correct! Wrong!

4. _______ it gets dark, I shall return in the morning.

Correct! Wrong!

5. Life is changing every moment . We_______ keep ourselves always up to date.

Correct! Wrong!

7. We ______ go against our parents.

Correct! Wrong!

8. Paint carefully lest you ______spoils all your work.

Correct! Wrong!

9. Sneha asked me if I ______go with her for searching for her lost watch.

Correct! Wrong!

9. Ananya ___never tell a lie.

Correct! Wrong!

10. _______ we follow his pieces of advice ?

Correct! Wrong!

11. We ____always respect out National emblems.

Correct! Wrong!

12. They are looking towards us consistently. They _____ be curios what we are doing.

Correct! Wrong!

13. You _______ leave the tap open. It is just wastage of water.

Correct! Wrong!

15. _____ I leave now ?

Correct! Wrong!

16. He has worked very hard. He ______ win this trophy this year.

Correct! Wrong!

FORMAL LETTER / COMPLAIN LETTER: EDITORIAL LETTER WITH SAMPLE AND EXAMPLES

FORMAL LETTER

FORMAL LETTER

Following are the categories under which a  Formal Letter falls:- 

  • to our communication on the official level
  • to government officials
  • business houses
  • customers
  • editors

That is why the tone of such kinds of letters must always be formal precise and to the point.  As the term itself indicates – a formal letter is written in a formal style i.e. the language and tone of the letter must be formal, impersonal, objective but pleasant. Therefore no formal expressions greetings or contracted forms of words are used. The language must be straightforward and to the point. It may be strongly worded but never impolite.

Informal Letters, we write only to our relatives or dearest one so there are
not many divisions of such kinds of letters while a Formal Letter – is divided in again different parts. So formal letter is again classified in
different parts –

  1. Editorial Letter
  2. Complain Letter
  3. Business letters
  4. Job application
    These four parts are again classified into different parts that I’ll explain to you
    when explaining the formats of all these kinds of letters. 

Format of a Formal Letter/Complain Letter

Sender’s Address

__________________

__________________

 

Date: ( American/British Format)

           American: July 15, 2021

           British: 15th July 2021

 

Designation

Area Name/Street Name

City Name

 

Salutation

Subject: _______________

 

 

 

Body

of

letter

 

Thanking You

 

Yours Sincerely

Name

(Designation if needed) 

Chanakya Group of Institution

42 Kasturba Marg

New Delhi

 

15th July 2021

 

 

The Police Commissioner

Rohtak Road

Bareilly

 

Sir/Ma’am

 

Subject: in a line

 

Opening

Discuss the issue

Tell the solutions

Closing

 

Thanking you

 

Yours sincerely

XYZ

(Secretary)

SAMPLE FORMAL LETTER

COMPLAIN LETTER - 1

Question
A leading news channel recently gave live coverage of some young slum dwellers being beaten up mercilessly by the police for a crime not committed by them. Such atrocities shake the faith of people. Write a letter to the Commissioner of Police urging him to adopt effective measures to cope with such brutality against innocent people. You are Niti or Nitesh, a resident of  7/11 Refinery Road, Guwahati.
 
 

7/11 Refinery Road

Guwahati 
 
15th March 2021
 
The Police Commissioner
Police Head Quarters 
Guwahati
 
Sir 
 
Subject: request for curbing police brutality against innocent people
 
I would like to draw your attention to the media coverage by all the leading news channels of the country, of the incident of police action against some young slum dwellers of Yamuna.
 
NDTV for example in its “News at 9”  program showed a posse of drunk policemen wreaking havoc in the slum dragging three young men by their hair and beating them with sticks and belts just because they had refused to pay the hafta. The three sustained serious head and rib cage injuries and were admitted to Sir Ganga Ram Hospital.
 
Sir, why it is that the police which are meant for the safety and security of the public get into the news for all the wrong reasons? When will your department learn to be human?  When will it learn to serve the public instead of intermediate in it?
 
Through this letter, I urge you to personally look into the incident and take effective steps to curb police brutality against the Innocent poor.
 
Hoping for an appropriate and prompt action.
 
Yours truly
Niti
 

COMPLAIN LETTER -2

Question
As a President of the Residents’ Welfare Association of your area,  write a letter to the Member of Parliament of your constituency ( Mr. Girdharlal) complaining about the excess flow of traffic outside the school gate of GL and Public School give constructive suggestions. You are Raj Singh Dalmia/ Ritu Singh Dalmia. 
 
 
B_16 Kirti Nagar
Yamuna Nagar 
 
March 15, 2021
 
Shri Girdhar Lal 
Member of Parliament ( Rajya Sabha)
10 The Mall
Delhi 
 
Sir
 
Subject:  complaining against the excess flow of traffic outside of school gate
 
I would like to introduce myself as the President of the Residents’ Welfare Association of Kirti Nagar and I wish to draw your kind attention to the problem created by the excessive flow of traffic outside the GL and Public School Gate. 
 
 The Rock created by fast-moving trucks, buses, scooters, bikes, auto-rickshaw, and their homes is playing havoc with the academic environment of the school. It distracts and disturbs the students and teachers making studies impossible. The SSP of the district has been approached by the principal many a time in this connection but nothing has been done so far day by day the problem is worsening.
 
May I, therefore, on behalf of all the residents of the area request you to take a personal interest in the matter and convert the area around the school into a no-horn zone. The road outside the school building should be closed for heavy vehicles at least during school hours . These vehicles can be easily diverted to the adjoining road.
 
I hope you will use your good offices with the Transport Authority and the police to take effective measures in this regard.
 
Thanking you 
 
Yours faithfully 
Raj Singh Dalmia 
President, RWA
 
 

EDITORIAL LETTER FORMAT

Sender’s Address

__________________

__________________

 

Date: ( American/British Format)

 

Designation

Newspaper Name

City Name

 

Salutation

 

Subject: _______________

 

 

 

Body

 

of

 

letter

 

  

Thanking You

 

Yours Sincerely

Name

(Designation if needed) 

Chanakya Group of Institution

42 Kasturba Marg

New Delhi

15th July 2021

The Editor

The Hindustan Times

New Delhi

Sir/Ma’am

Subject: in a line

Opening

Discuss the issue

Tell the solutions

Closing

Thanking you

Yours sincerely

xyz

(Secretary)

SAMPLE OF AN EDITORIAL LETTER

Question

Terrorism is no more than  a local  global issue. It is a global concern now. Write a letter to the Times of India voicing your concern and views on the issue which needs immediate redressal. You are Tarun / Taruni ,88 Block Road , Jaipur , Rajasthan.a

88 Block Road

Jaipur, Rajasthan

 

17th December  2020

The Editor

The Times of India

New Delhi

Sir

Subject: Against the Prevailing Violence

Through the column of your newspaper, I wish to draw the attention of the government and the general public to the ever-increasing menace of terrorism.

 

The world today is in the grip of terror more than ever before. Terrorism, whatever is its brand and ideology, leaves a trail of death and destruction behind.The long persistent problem of Kashmir, the communal terrorism in India, Mumbai attacks threat of Indo Pak Nuclear War and some more horrible conflicts than the common man can take in.  

 

I would be obliged to you if you publish my letter in your esteemed newspaper so that the general public might be alert and try to join hands together to resolve this problem and the government might also take tight steps to solve this problem.

Thanking you

 

Yours truly

Tarun/Taruni

 

CLEFT SENTENCE: KINDS OF A CLEFT SENTENCE: IT CLEFT: WH CLEFT: CLEFT PART OF A COMPLEX SENTENCE

CLEFT SENTENCE

READ THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES CAREFULLY:

  • It is my ice cream that you are enjoying.
  • What I need right now to have a cup of coffee.
  • It isn’t the color I was looking for.

These are the sentences that we often find in our day to day conversation. They are useful not only in Informal English but also in Formal English. But only a few know and understand the formation of the CLEFT SENTENCES. 

So what is the exact formation of such kinds of sentences? I am going to explain you here.

MEANING OF the word CLEFT
The meaning of the word cleft is –TO DIVIDE
so before proceeding ahead let’s have an idea of cleft sentences.

  • It is my watch that has been broken.
  • What they like for breakfast to have bread and butter.
  • That was Ankita who arrived first.
  • All I need to do right now to have a cup.

DEFINITION OF A CLEFT SENTENCE

So as it is clear with the world CLEFT

the meaning of which is to -divide
the definition also goes like this –

“A sentence parted in two different clauses
connecting the old information with the
new one emphasizing or focusing the new
information is called a cleft sentence.”

BASIC FEATURES OF A CLEFT SENTENCE

  1. 1. A cleft sentence is a complex sentence itself.
  2. It is divided into two parts.
  3. Every part has its own separate verb.
  4. It connects the old information with a new one.
  5. It focuses basically on the new information.

EXAMPLES

Nisha was absent yesterday.
No, It was Disha who was absent yesterday.

Be Attentive!

New information- It was Disha
Old Information- It was Nisha…

This means, there was someone absent yesterday. but Who was that? There was some confusion in the name. Who was that? That was Disha. So the old information was corrected with the new information, on which we focused or emphasized.

KINDS OF CLEFT SENTENCES

kinds of cleft sentences 

Now, there are two kinds of Cleft Sentences-

  • It cleft
  • Wh Cleft

IT CLEFT

In IT CLEFT, the focus is given on
the first Clause or the primary clause only.

Thus we can say , the clause that has IT

as a subject, is called It cleft because it focuses on the given clause that has IT 

as a subject.

Example

  • Was Kirtika’s dog lost?
  • No, IT WAS MY DOG that was lost.

It was my dog- NEW INFORMATION
that was lost- OLD INFORMATION.

 THE FORMATION OF IT CLEFT

IT+ BE+ OBJECT(emphasized word/phrase)+that/who clause

Example:

  • Divyam has secured the highest percentage in his class.
    No, It’s Shivam who has secured the highest percentage in the class.

So because we have given stress on the main noun who is the real achiever, we added him in the first clause that is the It-clause.

(It was Shivam) ( New information)

  • Anjani reads Shruti’s diary.
    No,It was Rishali’s diary that 

         was read by Anjani.

(Rishali’s diary )(new information)

REPLACEMENT OF IT
Sometimes we use other Demonstrative Pronouns also to replace IT.

Example

  • Those are the trees that have been cut down by someone yesterday.
  • That was the ice cream flavour that I wanted to taste.
  • These are the notes I was searching for.

 

WH CLEFT/ PSEUDO CLEFT

WH cleft is called pseudo cleft also. In WH-cleft the focus is given on the second part or the secondary clause.
Example-

  • What can I do for you?
    What you can do for me is

         to help me in completing my project.

The formation of a WH cleft sentence
WH-ClAUSE + BE+ emphasized word or phrase

Example –

  • What do you need right now?
    What I need is just to have an ice cream
    right now.

‘just to have ice cream’- New Information

‘What I need’ – Old information
REPLACEMENT OF WH-CLEFT

sometimes we can replace WH with –

#All
#The first thing
#The one thing

Examples-

  • The first thing I noticed in the morning
    was a beautiful flower blooming in my garden.
  • The one thing I want right now to be alone.
  • All you need is to have a rest for some time.

REVERSING WH CLEFT

We can use WH cleft clause

in reverse order also

Example

  • The new mobile is what I really need now.
  • Venice is the place where I really wish to
    visit once in my lifetime.

CLEFT WITH MODAL AUXILIARY

we can use modal auxiliary verbs also in
cleft sentences.

Example

  • It may be my fault that the rose plant in my garden died soon.
  • What I need now might be some snacks.
  • What you can do for me is just accompany me by the crossing.
  • IT could my illusion that you visited at the nearest mall yesterday.

THANK YOU!
HAPPY LEARNING!

EXERCISES

1______  would do is clear my point first.

a.That I said
b.What I s
c.It is what
d.What said

Ans: What I
2______ liked about him was his generous 

  behaviour.

a.What I
b.That I
c.What
d.It’s what I

Ans: What I
3______ everything started to fall apart.

a.It was 2020 when
b.2020 it was
c.2020 was where
d.Was 2020 when

Ans: It was 2020 when

4.Akshat was ______ came up with the original idea.

a.the person who
b.that
c.who
d.the person

Ans: the person who
5______ is to keep themselves safe from any upcoming danger.

a.The reason why they did it
b.How they did it
c.Because they did it
d.It’s why they did it

Ans: The reason why they did it

Tell the new and old information in the following Cleft sentences.

1 It was John who stole your watch.
No, It was Niyus who stole my watch.

Old information: ________
New Information: _________

2 What do you desire from your life?
All that I desire from my life is to enjoy a peaceful life.

3 That one thing you need right now is to meet your best friend.
No, It is y family that I need to meet right now.

Old information: ________
New Information: _________

4 It may be my fault that I met him.
No, It is the fault of start that you met him.
Old information: ________
New Information: _________

5 Those are the books that I was searching for.
No, These are the books that I was searching for.
Old information: ________
New Information: _________

6 What would you like to have for dinner.

Rice and Curry is the one thing I would like to have FOR dinner.

Old information: ________
New Information: _________

 

KEEP ON PRACTICING!

 

ARTICLES: EXERCISES OF ARTICLES A, AN AND THE: CORRECT USES OF A AN THE

Exercise: Correct uses of Determiners

I. Fill in the blanks with the correct usage of Indefinite Article( a or an):-

a. Edison was ____intelligent scientist.

b. He works in ___insurance company.

c. ______ Industrious man is praised by everyone.

d. Ravi gave me ___useful book.

e. India is ___ hot country.

f. ____ apple ____ keeps a doctor away.

g. The train is running at eighty-kilometer ___hour.

h. Have you seen ____ white elephant?

g. _____ airplane made ___ loud noise.

h. Have you seen ____ white elephant?

i. This was ____ ultimate decision. 

j. Don’t make hurry.

Answer: 

a. an, b. an

c. an, d. a

e. a,   f. an, a

g. an,   h. a 

i. an,  j. a 

II. Rewrite the following sentences with the correct uses of ARTICLES:

a. Rich are not always kind.

b. Boys made loud noise.

c. Fox is clever animal.

d. Everyone respects honest man.

e. I have black umbrella.

f.  There is hospital in my village.

g. Cow is a useful animal.

h.  The Delhi is big city.

i.  Peacock dances gracefully.

Answers:

a.The rich are not always kind.

b. The boys made a loud noise.

c. The fox is a clever animal.

d. Everyone respects an honest man.

e. I have a black umbrella.

f. There is a hospital in my village. 

g. The cow is a useful animal.

h. Delhi is a big city. 

i. The peacock dances gracefully. 

 

 

 

III. Write RIGHT or WRONG. 

a. The Kanpur is an industrious city.

b. Silver is a useful metal.

c. I go to the office daily at 7 am.

d. I’ll meet you in library. 

e. The Darkest cloud has silver linings. 

f. Both boys are naughty . ( )

g. The Sharmas have gone on a tour. () 

h. See at the last page of

     my book.(  )

I. The English is very easy to understand. ( )

Answer:

a. wrong

b. right

c. wrong

d. wrong

e. right

f. wrong

g. right

h. right

I. wrong 

WAIT FOR MORE EXERCISES

ARTICLE: THE: USES OF THE: DETERMINER THE: REPETITION OF ARTICLES: OMISSION OF ARTICLES

ARTICLE: THE: USES Of ARTICLE THE: REPETITION OF ARTICLES: OMISSION OF ARTICLES

The Topic of Articles come under three parts:-

I. The Correct usage of Article s  a. Indefinite Articles ( a & an )   b. Definite Article ( The )

II. Repetition of Articles

III. Omission of Articles

Note :

The is used with: Singular & Plural both:-

Examples:-

  • I visited the Red Fort yesterday.
  • The mangoes I bought today, were really delicious.

Learn with video

                                       &     

                                  Notes

 
 1. Pointing out the nouns already referred to:-
  • When I was roaming in the garden. I plucked a beautiful flower.
  • This is the flower I plucked from the garden. (pointing out referred already)  
  • When I was going to market a boy asked me about you.
  • This is the boy who was asking about you. (pointing out referred already)

 2. With all the Celestial /Universal / Unique things

  •  The earth
  • The moon
  • The stars
  • The oceans

The sun revolves around the earth.

The ocean looks beautiful at the midnight.

3. Before the parts of the days

  • The morning
  • The evening
  • The noon
  • The noon shines with the purple rays of the sun.

I’ll return in the evening.

4. With Modern unique things

a. Thousands of students today are having their online classes through the internet.

b. We have arranged a lot of amount for pandemic victims through crowdfunding.

5.. With government/government bodies

(Army /police / navy)

  • Takes THE when they are talked as an institute
  • The police are performing their duties perfectly well.
  • The navy sailed to the north for the next destination.
  • I have served in the army for four years.

But we use (a/an) when referring to their characteristics

India has a strong army.

A weak army can be the basic reason for the defeat of any country.  

6. Before all the geographical areas/bodies

a.  Before the mountain ranges

  • The Himalayas,
  • The Alps

But never use articles before their peaks.

  • Mount Everest, Mount Olympus.

b. The names of rivers, seas, deserts

  • The Taj is situated on the bank of the Yamuna. 
  • London is situated on the bank of the Thames. 
  • The Arctic Ocean touches the continents of North America, Europe, and Asia
  • The Gobi Desert is called ‘ beast of the desert.

c.  Before the names of states /countries when different entities are grouped together

                           The United States of America (the group of states)

                           The Punjab ( a place of five rivers)

7. When we take Singular Common Noun as a whole class

  • The dog is a faithful animal.
  • The cow lives on grass.
  • The peacock dances gracefully.

8. Before the name of surnames:

  • The Sharmas
  • The varmas

9. With Proper nouns in some cases

a. When Proper noun is used as a TITLE

  • Alexander the great
  • The great Ashoka
  • Akbar the great

b. When Proper Noun takes the Plural form

  • India needs the Bhagat Sings, The Veer Savarkars, the Azads, and the Laxmibais again to make it free from corruption.

c. When Proper Nouns are talked as if Common Noun( adjective of a noun.)

  • Kashmir is called the Switzerland of India
  • Kalidas is called the Shakespeare of India

10. Before the name of all the religious books

  • The Bhagwat Gita, The Quaran Shariff,

11. When the Adjective is talked as if Noun of Multitude

  • The rich should help the poor.
  • The brave must always protect the weak.

12. Before the double Comparative Degree

  • The more you eat the more you will grow fat.
  • The higher you go the cooler you will feel.

But not before the single comparative degrees.

  • The lotus is more beautiful than the rose.

13. Before the Superlative degrees

  • The lotus is the most beautiful among all the flowers.
  • Abhishek is the naughtiest boy in the class.

14. Before the names of Newspapers.

  • The Times of India
  • The Hindustan Times

15. Before the names of all the trains, airplanes, and ships

  • The Indian Express
  • The Victory
  • The Indan Airlines 

16.  ALWAYS USE ARTICLE AFTER ‘ ALL ‘ AND ‘BOTH’

  • All the boys in this class are naughty.
  • Both the flowers are very sweet.

1.When two or more than two Adjectives qualify one single Noun

I saw a red and white flower in my garden today. (one flower)

The blue and white wallet in your hand is mine. ( one wallet )

 

When different Adjectives qualify different Nouns,

we use articles before every Adjective-

I saw a red and a white flower in my garden today. ( two flowers)

The blue and the white wallets in your hand are mines. ( Two wallets)

 

Common error

The blue and the white wallet in your hand are mine. ( Two wallets)

Exception:-  If a Noun is in plural form, we must not repeat Articles

The first and second chapters are interesting.

( The first and the second chapter are interesting )

The French and English left the field.

NOTE: HERE THE FRENCH AND THE ENGLISH ARE TALKED AS COLLECTIVE NOUN TOGETHER THAT IS WHY THE SENTENCE TOOK ‘THE’ ONLY BEFORE FIRST NOUN ‘ THE FRENCH’.

IF WE HAVE TO TALK ABOUT THE DWELLERS OF FRANCE AND ENGLAND SEPARATELY, WE ‘LL USE ARTICLE THE SEPARATELY BEFORE FRENCH AND ENGLISH 

Example :

The French defeated the English. 

Remember when we use the before the name of any language, we never use THE  but when we are talking about the dwellers of any country, we’ll use THE.

2. When two different Nouns belong to one single person or thing, we use the article only before the first noun:-

The director and principal of the school welcomed the chief guest at the Annual Function. (one person)

3. When two different Nouns belong to different persons or things, we use an article before every noun:-

The director and the principal of the school welcomed the chief guest at the Annual Function.

The CEO and the manager have arrived. Now the meeting is going to arrive soon. 

 

 

III. OMISSION OF ARTICLES

1. NEVER USE ARTICLES BEFORE A PROPER NOUN

  •   I am going to Kolkata. ( right)
  •   I am going to THE Kolkata. ( wrong )
  •   Is your name Priyanshu? (right)
  •  Are you the PRIYANSHU? (wrong)

2. NEVER USE ARTICLE BEFORE A MATERIAL NOUN

  •  Gold is a precious metal. (right)
  • The gold is a precious metal. ( wrong.) 
  • The crops of wheat have been spoiled this year. (right)
  • The crops of  the wheat have been spoiled this year. (right)

BUT NOT BEFORE THE ARTICLES OF SOME MATERIALS

 

  • I have A gold ring ( right)
  • I have  gold ring. (wrong)
  • You will be hit hard with AN iron rod. (right)
  • You will be hit hard with  iron rod. ( wrong) 

You will be hit hard with an iron rod. ( wrong )

3. NEVER USE ARTICLES BEFORE THE NAMES OF COLOURS

Blue is my favourite colour. ( right)

THE blue Is my favourite colour. ( wrong)

BUT IF COLOUR NAME IS ADDED WITH ANY OBJECT,

WE’LL USE ARTICLE

I have  A black shirt. (right)

I have  black shirt. ( wrong)

 4. NEVER USE ARTICLES BEFORE AN ABSTRACT NOUN.

Honesty is the best policy.

( right)

 THE honest is the best policy.( wrong)

5. NEVER USE ARTICLES BEFORE THE NAMES OF GAMES

I like to play chess. ( right)

I like to play THE  chess.

( wrong)

6. NEVER USE ARTICLES BEFORE THE NAMES OF SUBJECTS

I like Physics. ( right)

I like THE PHYSICS.

   (wrong )

7. NEVER USE ARTICLES BEFORE REGULAR MEALS

     ( LUNCH, BREAKFAST, DINER)

Have you had your dinner? ( right)

Have you had your THE dinner?

BUT USE ARTICLE IF WE HAVE AN ADJECTIVE BEFORE THESE NOUNS

Last Sunday, I had A  nice breakfast at this hotel. ( right)

Last Sunday, I had  nice breakfast at this hotel. (WRONG)

8. NEVER USE ARTICLES BEFORE ANY EDIBLES

I had rice for dinner last night. ( right)

I had THE rice in my dinner. ( wrong)

9. NEVER USE ARTICLE BEFORE 

GOD , HEAVEN ,HELL

God is in Heaven .(right)

The God is the Heaven. ( wrong )

Satan lived in Hell. ( right)

Satan lived in the Hell. ( wrong)

NOTE : Always start the spellings of God ,Heaven , Hell. with capital letter only. 

10. NEVER USE ARTICLE AFTER 

    Effect, Appoint, Crown, and Make,

Nitin was made the monitor of the class. ( wrong)

Nitin was made monitor of the class. (right) 

He was crowned king. 

 He was crowned the king.

( wrong)  

SPECIAL RULES

After Half, we always use article –  A’ & An’

I will return after half an hour.

I would like to have only a half piece of  Chocolate cake.

After Such, we always use the article ‘a’ or ‘an’

I have never seen such an intelligent girl.

I have never seen such a boy. ( you are a typical boy to be understood.)

After So, we always use the article ‘a’ or ‘an’

I had no sleep in so cold a night.

India is facing so brutal an army.

With the phrases ‘kind of’ and sort of ‘ we never use ARTICLES

What kind of a person you are! (wrong)

What kind of person you are  ! (right)

What sort of joke it is! ( right)

What sort of a joke it is! ( wrong )

QUIZ

 

a. Edison was ____intelligent scientist.

Correct! Wrong!

b. Ravi gave me ___useful book.

Correct! Wrong!

c. He works in ___insurance company.

Correct! Wrong!

d.______ Industrious man is praised by everyone.

Correct! Wrong!

e. ____ apple in ___day keeps the doctor away.

Correct! Wrong!

f. The train is running at eighty-kilometer ___hour.

Correct! Wrong!

g. Have you seen ____ white elephant?

Correct! Wrong!

h. _____ airplane made ___ loud noise.

Correct! Wrong!

i. This was ____ ultimate decision

Correct! Wrong!

j. Don’t make ____hurry.

Correct! Wrong!

A/AN
I will win one day* Let’s try again
HERO*** Let’s try again to be a SUPER HERO
SUPER HERO*****

Share your Results:

 

If you wish to practice, practice from the link given below…

USES OF INDFINITE ARTICLE A AND AN

LEARN WITH VIDEOS

SEMI MODAL VERB: USE TO :NEED: DARE

USES OF 'USE TO'

USE TO is a part of semi Modal Verb as it is used as Modal Auxiliary Verb and then as Principal Verb as well.

Now, the study of  ‘use to ‘comes under 3 parts:

I. USE TO ‘ AS A MODAL AUXILIARY VERB’

II.  USE TO ‘AS A PRINCIPAL VERB’ 

III. USE TO ‘AS AN ADJECTIVE ‘

I. USE TO AS A MODAL VERB 

(FOR SHOWING HABITUAL ACTIONS)

Commonly, ‘Use to’ shows habits. 

Now there are two kinds of habits –

  • Temporary habits 
  • Permanently habits

So ‘use to’ is used with Temporary and Permanent habits both. 

  • I use to have a walk early in the morning. 
  • I use to leave for my office daily at 7 am.

But if the sentence is talking about Past Permanent habits 

The use of ‘ USED TO ‘ is preferred. 

  • I used to teach in St. Xavier School when I lived in Meerut.
  • I used to leave for my office at 7 am when I lived in Agra. 

Then what about Temporary habits ???

  • I used to attend a Teaching workshop every Saturday at my last school. 

For showing Temporary habits use of ‘ WOULD ‘ is preferred. 

  •  I would visit the beach often when I lived in Goa
  •  Malini would visit my home when we studied in school. 

Now the question arises –    

    “ How will you recognize temporary or permanent habits?”

When you repeat any work often but that is not your definite routine. You might be fond of doing any work but you don’t have any compulsion to complete that work. (You like walking but you are not compelled to walk) But when we are talking about the extended action i.e you are bound to do any work for a long period, you’ll use USED TO. 

REMEMBER:

Sometimes USED TO / WOULD both are used for the past repeated action also. 

( When action is repeated again and again)

  •  When she lived in the hostel with me she would do nothing but cry.
  • When she lived with me in the hostel she used to cry a lot. 
  • II. USE TO ‘AS A PRINCIPAL VERB’ 

Because USE TO is a part of Semi Modal, it is used as a principal verb also.

  • He does not use to come to my home now.
  • Does he Use to study in London?
  • He didn’t use to play chess when he was a child.
  • Used he to study in London?

III. USED TO ‘AS AN ADJECTIVE AS ACCUSTOMED OF/ FAMILIAR WITH’

The verbal use of USED TO should not be confused with the adjectival use of the same expression, meaning “familiar with/ accustomed of ” 

  • I have been used to the cold weather.
  • Santosh Yadav had been used to the icy weather of the Himalayas.
  • I don’t bother what she says now. I have been used to her irritating  behaviour

REMEMBER: 

When USED TO  is followed by a verb, it always takes gerund form.

He is used to smoking.

  • We are used to walking for miles. 
  • She has been used to shout aloud. 

Exercise - HOW MUCH YOU UNDERSTOOD ABOUT 'USE TO'

Read the following sentences carefully and tell in which form of  USE TO and WOULD have been used  , as a

Modal Verb, Principal Verb

or Accustomed of –

Two have been answered  for example-

a. Anjani use to visit my home daily.

   Answer: Modal

b. Deeksa is use to fighting with girls.

   Answer : accustomed with

c, Rishan would play hockey during his college days.

Answer:

d. Use Deepam visit your home often?

Answer:

e. She doesn’t use to tell lies.

Answer:

f. Has Diya been use to facing the challages of life ?

Answer:

g. Did Deepak use to come school at time ?

Answer:

h. Use she have 2 cups of coffee everyday ?

Answer :

I. I used to take meeting of my employees every Saturday when I worked in Bajaj Finance.

Answer:

j. I would have a walk on the river bank with my friend during my childhood days.

ANSWERS:

c. modal verb

d. modal verb 

e. principal verb

f. principal verb

g. principa verb 

modal verb

h. modal verb

i. modal verb 

j. modal verb

 

USE OF NEED

Need shows requirements/ necessities. Being a Semi Modal Verb, It is not only used as a Semi Modal Verb but also as a Principal Verb. In Tense ‘Need’ is used as a Principal/ Main Verb while in  Modals ‘ Need ‘ is used as a Modal Auxiliary Verb.

Now let’s learn one by one all the uses of Need.
A. USE OF NEED AS A PRINCIPAL VERB

In Tense ‘Need’ is used as a requirement/ necessity.

  • She does not need to worry about you.
  • I don’t need your help.
  • Does Vinita need your advice?

B. MODAL AUXILIARY VERB 
In Modals ‘ Need’ is used 
again as Necessity and Duty as well. 

  • You need not come here again.
  • You need visit your friend. He has lost his mother.
  • I needn’t more sheets to write.
  • Need I use this sentence to write in the application?

REMEMBER:

a. If NEED is followed by a Verb, it always takes TO (Infinitive to+v2).

B. If used as a Modal Auxiliary, it will never take TO,(will only take a bare Infinitive-(V1 without TO) as per the rules, Modal Auxiliary never takes Infinitive ( TO).

  • She does not need to come here. (Tense)
  • She needn’t come here. (MODAL)

c. In Tense as a Principal Verb, ‘need’ will add ‘s’ i.e. 5th form of NEED (needs)  if the sentence is in Present Indefinite

( Affirmative) when the subject is singular in number, and ‘ed’  (needed) will be added when the sentence is in Past Indefinite (Affirmative) but in Modals, there is no need to add

‘s’  or ‘ed’ with the VERB ‘need’ as there is no form of the MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS.

  • Disha needs more chocolates. (Tense)
  • Disha need more chocolates. (Modal)
  • Avni needed my help at that time. (Tense)
  • Avni didn’t need your help at that time. (Tense)

REMEMBER:

a. For framing the Past sentence of Need, we’ll have to take the help of Tense (Principal verb)as with modal framing past Tense with ‘need’ is not possible’.

The negative form didn’t need + to-infinitive normally refers to actions which were unnecessary and were not performed:

  •  Avni didn’t need your help as I was there for her.
  • Anshu needn’t fire crackers on New year’s eve. See, he has burnt his hand.

c. NEED as PERFECT INFINITIVE

Need+ have + V3
Often used in framing Negative Sentences. 
( something that was not required to do but had been done)

  • He need not have joined the camp this time. His exams are at hand.
  • Need he has lost his temper in such a crucial condition? Now see, he has spoiled his whole career.

d. Need while answering the questions
How to use while Answering a question 
Read the examples carefully-

  • Need he go there?

      No, he needn’t.

     Yes, he must 
If the answer is in the affirmative, the use of ‘ needn’t ‘ is required if the answer is positive use of ‘ must’ is compulsoryOER

EXERCISE : HOW MUCH YOU UNDERSTOOD ABOUT 'NEED'

Read the following sentences carefully and tell in which form of  NEED has been used in the following sentences:- 

(Principal Verb, Modal Auxiliary, Perfect Infinitive)

( Two have been done as examples_

a. You are an affluent personality.          You need help the poor.

Answer- Modal Auxiliary

c. Ridhim need not have gone the cinema today. See , he has lost his bike there.

Answer: 

d. Priya needs not worry about her future. She is a brilliant girl. 

Answer-

e. Need you visit your friend’s house today?

f. Akash didn’t need your notebook.

    He was only trying you, 

Answer- 

 g. Belinda need have secured good marks. The merit has gone very high. She can not get admission in a good school. 
Answer: 

ANSWER:

c. Perfect Infinitive

d. Principal Verb

e. Modal Auxiliary 

f. Principal Verb 

g. Perfect Infinitive

 

USE OF DARE

DARE EXPRESSES:

  • TRYING SOMETHING AGAINST ANYTHING/ANYONE’S WILL
  • THE BOLDNESS  OR COURAGE TO DO SOMETHING
  • TO BE AS BOLD AS

Like other Semi Modal Verbs, ‘Dare ‘ is used as a Modal 

Auxiliary verb and Principal Verb as well.

Let’s understand the different uses of dare stepwise-

A. USE OF DARE AS A PRINCIPAL VERB

She doesn’t dare to face me now.

She didn’t dare to visit my home.

Don’t dare to ask such a question from your teacher.

Jigyasu dares to face the tough baller.

B. USE OF DARE AS A MODAL AUXILIARY VERB

I dare not visit alone in the dense forest.

Dare not visit this place again.

Dare you take such a challenge?

REMEMBER: Like other Semi Modal Verbs Dare also can take Present, Past, and Past Participle forms of the verb but While using the same word as modal Auxiliary Verb, will never take any form as Modals never change the forms.

In the same way DARE if used as a Principal Verb , it will take infinitive(to+v1)

but when it is used a Modal verb it will not take infinitive. 

EXERCISE: HOW MUCH YOU UNDERSTOOD ABOUT 'DARE'

Read the following sentences carefully and tell in which form DARE is taking:-

( Principal Verb or Modal Auxiliary) 

a. Agatha dare not face the bitter truth of her life.

      Answer:

b. Garima dare not move to my home next time. 

      Answer: 

c. Dare Shubhangi visit my street next time?

      Answer:

d. Smita didn’t dare to see her report card as she knew the result. 

       Answer : 

e. Anuj dares to challenge Akhilesh.

    Answer:

f. Nikhil did not dare to look into her father’s eyes. 

ANSWERS

a. Modal Auxiliary

b. Modal Auxiliary

c. Modal Auxiliary

d. Principal Verb

e Principal Verb

f. Principal Verb

QUIZ

1. Hina didn’t ____jump off the high wall .

Correct! Wrong!

2. You____invite Jyotsana if she doesn’t wish to join.

Correct! Wrong!

3. Ruchi ___ know my address. I don’t wish to meet her.

Correct! Wrong!

4. Abhishek ______ show his teeth during the ongoing class everytime.

Correct! Wrong!

5. ______ Richa ask me such a question ?

Correct! Wrong!

6. Shruti ____ to pay attention on her studies. She seems diverting her my now a days.

Correct! Wrong!

7. Akash_____ remains silent in the class .

Correct! Wrong!

8. Vishal ______ to work harder than earlier to shine.

Correct! Wrong!

9. Srishti _____ ask questions from Saloni when she remained absent in school.

Correct! Wrong!

10. Akshat has been_____ irritating others.

Correct! Wrong!

11. Sneha ______ have a walk for half an hour everyday during lockdown. But now she can’t as the schools have been opened.

Correct! Wrong!

12. Aarti _____ visit the hospital during lockdown as she was appointed nurse there.

Correct! Wrong!

ANALYTICAL WRITING : HOW TO WRITE AN ANALYTICAL WRITING

The meaning of analytical is something ‘logical’ .i.e. the explanation of the meaning of something. So contrary to a simple paragraph ‘ analytical writing is ‘an interpretation of something’ i e. a paragraph that shows facts and figures from which conclusion may be drawn. Thus contrast to the simple paragraph analytical writing measures your-

a. Critical Thinking
b. Analytical Writing

c. Formation of complex ideas.

So in short, the students are required to summarize the data with a little bit of basic analysis.
( similarities or comparisons of the main trend )

The basic points to remember-
a.Word Limit
b. Good voca​​bulary
c. Avoid Grammatical Mistakes
d. No iirrelevantinformation
e. Functional Language
f. Avoid Grammatical mistakes
g. Employ appropriate vocabulary
( a little bit complex  idiomatic, and accurate)
g. Avoid spelling mistakes
h. Be clear and accurate
i. Synonyms instead of using the same words

Divide the para into 3 parts-

Introduction
Body
Conclusion

a. Introduction
Give a short detail about the topic, not more
than 1-2 lines.

b. Body
Elaborate on the topic with real facts and figures.
Comparisons against the trend

c. Conclusion
Summarize the pictorial graph in 2 to 3 lines

 

Sample

Based on sample  question paper provided by CBSE:-

SEE THE EXAMPLE BELOW

Instructions for the beginner:-

First, try to prepare a rough draft then replace your vocabulary with better and rich vocabulary ,phrases and expressions. Try to solve questions and soon you will be habitual of writing in a better language.

For your convenience, I have prepared rough and final writing to make you understand ‘How to write Analytical Writing ‘ in a Proper way.

Golden words are written roughly

Blue colour words are replced with the rough ones.


Rought Draft

 

The bar graph shows clearly the year wise purchase of digital devices in Rishu Nagar from the year 2015  to 2019.

 
Since 2015 the increment in the purchase of computers and smartphone both is found rising . The Purchase from 2015 to 2017 is found increasing consistently. The uniformity in increments in 2017 is found consistent which brought profit of 80 crores in this year.Then the Purchase shows a sudden reduction in 2018. It reduced from 80 to 60 crore. I huge gap of reduction can be observed between 2017 to 2018 . Then graph shows a striking increment in the year 2019. The profit rose from 60 crore and purchase as well.
 
 The graph shows consistent growth from the year 2015 to 2019. However, in 2018 the purchase fell down a little. But brought consistent growth in the profit in the purchase of devices predicting the growth in the coming years in Rishu Nagar. 
 
  

Final Writing

The diagram shows the year wise profit and purchase of digital devices in Rishu Nagar across the year 2015- 2019.

 

Since 2015 the gradual growth was experienced in the purchase of both the devices. The purchase from 2015 to 2017 was consistent that added a dramatic profit of from 40 to 80 crore. In 2016 the devices added 20 crore profit which was 20 crore again . In comparison of 2015, the profit was added 40 crores more.

Then the Purchase shows a striking reduction in 2018 the profit when down the Purchase was produced with the loss of 20 crores in the year 2018 but the profit begins to rise again and touch the Zenith in 2019 again and with the highest purchase of the devices the profit was added 20 cr in comparison to 2018 and 80 cr as compared to 2015.

Thus the consistent growth from the year 2015 to 2019 with a little fluctuation in the year 2018 than a surprisingly steep in 2019 shows the unexpected growth in the Purchase and profit in the coming years

Questions for practice with some more tricks :COMING SOON 

TILL THEN KEEP ON VISITING THE SITE

HAPPY LEARNING ! 

LETTER WRITING: FORMAT OF INFORMAL LETTER: SAMPLE OF INFORMAL LETTER: HOW TO WRITE AN INFORMAL LETTER

LETTER WRITING

Letter writing is a very important means of staying in touch with our relatives,  with our friends, with our clients and colleagues as well. Though at present time this trend of writing an informal letter is almost lessening day by day which really had brought warmth in our relationships.  But with the advancement of technology in the field of communication if we notice
especially in the business sector and other official fields, this trend of writing letter is
still, in existence, this is the reason no board has removed this part of writing
section from any board either that is CBSE board, the state board, or the ICSE board. If we notice in the CBSE board syllabus of English, earlier we used
to have different writing parts like telegram writing, message writing, etc but all those things have been completely removed as we can notice almost nil usage of all these means of communication. 

But Letter Writing is still in existence. So I am going to explain to you the formats of different kinds of letters one by one in my upcoming lessons. So keep on visiting and learning different kinds of letters one by one.

So I am going to explain to you first the classification of letters and different terms of writing a letter that you will come across by
learning the formats of different kinds of letters. 

So depending upon the
relationship between the sender and the receiver a letter can be classified into two parts:-

  1. Formal letter
  2. Informal letter

A formal letter is also called
an official letter and an impersonal letter while an informal letter is also called or an 

Inofficial letter.

INFORMAL LETTER

So Informal letter – as it is clear with the name only – it is written to our

  • dearest ones
  • to our friends 
  • to relatives

An informal letter is personal in nature. It should be written in a simple clear easy to understand natural and lively way like the way one friend or relative talks to another. we write a personal letter –

  • to express our feelings
  • to share our joys and sorrows to those of our loved ones
  • mark social and religious locations e.g. to the announcement of birth and engagement etc.
  • acknowledge and appreciate people in life to advise them
  • make complaints (do it politely)
  • make proposals and suggestions
  • send invitations replies to invitations and reminder

that is why the tone of such kinds of letters always remains informal.

FORMAL LETTER

Following are the categories under which a  Formal Letter falls :- 

  • to our communication on the official level
  • to government officials
  • business houses
  • customers
  • editors

That is why the tone of such kinds of letters must always be formal precise and to the point.  As the term itself indicates – a formal letter is written in a formal style i.e. the language and tone of the letter are formal, impersonal, objective but pleasant. Therefore no formal expressions greetings or contracted form forms of words are used . The language must be straight forward and to the point . It may be strongly worded but never impolite.

Informal Letters, we write only to our relatives or dearest one so there are
not many divisions of such kinds of letters while a Formal Letter – it is
divided in again different parts. So formal letter is again classified in
different parts –

  1. Editorial Letter
  2. Complaint Letter
  3. Business letters
  4. Job application
    these four parts are again classified into different parts that I explain to you
    when I’ll explain new formats of these all these kinds of letters. 

TERMS OF LETTER WRITING

Following are the terms that we need understand while learning the format of a Letter Writing:- 

  • Informal
  • Formal
  • Layout
  • Sender’s Address
  • Receiver’s Address
  • Date
  • Salutation
  • Body of Letter
  • Signature

 

  1. Formal: the style of writing – suitable for a personal/ a friendly letter
  2. Formal: the style of writing – suitable for official communications
  3. Layout: an arrangement of the text of a letter with a uniform left margin and paragraph
  4. Date: Information about the Day, Month, and Time on which the letter has been written
  5. Sender’s Address: Address of the one who is writing a letter
  6. Receiver’s Address: Address of the one who we are communicating with 
  7. Salutation: ( a customary address) A set of expressions of paying regard 
  8. Subject: a statement of the topic of a Formal Letteri.e. what is about 
  9. Body of the Letter: an appearance of the letter parted in different paragraphs with proper arrangement usually in 3 parts but may vary according to the given word limits with proper opening, description, and closing.
  10. Complimentary Close: phrasal expression of closing the letter 
  11. Name and Designation: Name and Signature with Desgination

FORMAT OF INFORMAL LETTER

Sender’s Address

__________________

__________________

 

Date: ( American/British Format)

 

Salutation

 

           Body

           

            of

 

          letter

 

 

 

   

Customary closing

 

Name

 

42Vishnupuri

 Mahatma Gandhi Marg

Jaisalmer , Rajasthan

 

15th January 2021

 

Dear Maa

 

Opening

 

Express yourself

 

Closing

 

Closing

 

 

Your loving daughter/son

xyz

 

SAMPLE INFORMAL LETTER

 42Vishnupuri

 Mahatma Gandhi Marg

Jaisalmer , Rajasthan

 

15th January 2021

 

Dear Archie,

How are you doing? Hope you are doing well at your end. Many thanks for your letter and for the photographs.They brought back many happy memories of our holiday.


Indeed the time spent with you has ended up being one of the best I have had so far. 

The expedition to Rohtang long drives in the river beds and valleys in Leh, monasteries- all seem to be out of the world. India is as fascinating as or more than had expected. Your lively company just proved to be the icing on the cake.

 

I am glad to know that your school is going on well. It must have been difficult I guess after the holidays to come back to the rut of the school routine. Anyway, that too is very important, isn’t it?

 

Do let me know when you are planning to visit us I talk so much about you that my family is dying to see you what Joy it would be to see you have you Among us.

I guess I have got to be going. I am getting late for my weekly piano class.

catch you later 

Bye

DETERMINERS: USES KEY FEATURES: DEMONSTRATIVE:POSSESSIVES: QUIZZES

What is a Determiner ?

Read the following sentences carefully:- 

  • It is my pen.
  • I have  a litter sugar in my jar
  • Every student in the class is bright.

  Here –

 ‘My’ is describing the Pen ( Noun )

‘ A little’ is describing the sugar in the jar ( Noun)

‘Bright is describing the student (Noun)

So we can say –

Definition:-

A determiner is a word that introduces a noun I.e. a word that tells something about a noun.

Example :
      It is my pen.
      I have some good Grammar books.  

Here SOME and MY, which are placed

before the nouns i.e. PEN and Books, are Determiners as they are pointing out the nouns that are placed just after them.

 

Key features of DETERMINERS-
So if we notice the following examples, we can find out some basic features of determiners.

 

1. A Determiner tells something about a noun.

2. They are always placed before a Noun.
3. They are placed before the Adjectives also that describe the nouns.

eg.

  •  Kashmir is called the Switzerland of India.
    Here Switzerland is not a Proper Noun but used as an Adjective for Kashmir.

4. While framing the questions of  determiner sentences, we find out that questions are framed only with either ‘ whose’,  ‘how many’ ‘how much’ or ‘which’

eg. 

 Que. Whose pen is this?
        Ans. This is my pen.
        Que. Which book is yours?
        Ans. That book is mine.

        Que. How many good Grammar books 

        are you having with you?
        Ans. I have some good Grammar books 

         with me.

 

6. A determiner is a part of an Adjective

Note:

Still, there is a little difference between a Determiners and an Adjective

An adjective describes a noun while a Determiner determines or points out a noun.

Example:-

  • I have a beautiful kite. 
  • I have a kite.

In the first example, we are told the kind of a particular kite. While in the second sentence we are exactly pointing out how many kites I am having.

Still, we can’t completely say other determiners are not parts of adjective because other parts of determines are also parts of Adjectives.

1. Determiner is known as an ___________ also.

Correct! Wrong!

2. Determiner is a word that tells something about a ________

Correct! Wrong!

3. Determiner is always used ____ a noun.

Correct! Wrong!

4. Determiner is also used before the ______ that describes a noun.

Correct! Wrong!

5. The one who sleeps for long hours is often called as ‘the Kumbhakaran’. Here Kumbhakaran is –

Correct! Wrong!

6. Tell the Determiners in the following sentence- ” Those flowers in your garden are really very nice.”

Correct! Wrong!

Questions of Determiners can always be framed with-

Correct! Wrong!

Now there are total of four  kinds of Determiners:

  1. Demonstratives
  2. Possessives(Possessive Adjective)
  3. Quantifiers
  4. Articles

Some Grammarian have divided them into nine  parts:-

  5. Interrogative ( only some interrogative words not every)

  6. Distributive

   7. Ordinal

   8. Cardinals

    

  

DEMONSTRATIVE

Demonstrative is a word that has been derived from the Latin word DEMONSTRARE that means to ‘show something clearly.

So in this way, we
can say that we can show someone or something clearly by pointing out so in short, we can say

” Demonstrative are the words
that point out the ones referred to.” We can say-

  • It talks about the things
    by pointing out.
  • It talks about the
    person by pointing out.
  • It points out the things as proof.
  • It points out the ideas that are very close to your mind or in our distant memories.
  • This is the watch my mother gave me on my birthday.
  • That is the ring I was looking for.
  • Those are the boys who were disturbing the class.
  • These grapes are very sour. I can’t eat them.

So in short, demonstratives are the words
that show the things or persons by pointing out.
Now let’s check demonstrative in detail-
There are four kinds of Demonstrative-

  • This
  • That
  • These
  • Those

Now let’s check each kind of
demonstrative in detail –
THIS
THIS points out the things, persons or
ideas they are very close to us.

Example- This marker is mine.
(Means – The marker is very close to the person who is pointing it out.)
This book is not yours.
(Means marker is very close to the person who is pointing out.)
This idea is better than that one.
( This idea – the idea that is going on right now.)
Were you asking about this boy?
(Means the boy is very close to the speaker.)

In precise, we can notice that we are talking about the things
or ideas that are very close to us.

THAT

That talks about the things, persons, or ideas that are very far from us.

Example
That book is not mine.
(Means- The book is very far from the person who is pointing it out.)

That idea didn’t really work.
(Means- The idea is in the distant memory of the speaker)
My bag is better than that of yours.
(Means- The bag is very far from the person who is pointing it out.)
Your book is heavier than that of mine
(Means- The book is far from the speaker)

So we can simply say that the person, things, or ideas
that have been mentioned in the above sentences
are either far from the speaker or in his distant memories.

THESE-Plural of This

These talk about many persons, things, or ideas that
are very close to us.
Example

These grapes are very sour. I can’t eat them.
Where are you these days?
Can you suggest to me some more plans than these?

It is also very clear that THESE is the Pronoun/Demonstrative
actually talking about many things
persons or ideas that are very close to
the speaker.

THOSE- Plural of That

That talks about many things
many person things or ideas that area
little or very far from the speaker.

Example

Those clocks never give the correct time.
These plants are bigger than those.
Those ideas just really didn’t work.

So these are some usage of demonstratives.

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE

Possessive Adjective

Possessives – the word has been derived from the word POSSESSIONS meaning of which is-  TO OWE SOMETHING.

Thus “The person or thing that has right on anyone or anything is called Possessive.”

i.e. Possessives are the words that show to whom the thing or person belongs.

Possessive Adjective

“The words used before the nouns that show the ownership on something/someone are called Possessive Adjective.”

  • It is MY pen.

       This pen belongs to me.

  • is it YOUR water bottle 

       ( Does this bottle belong to you.

  • Where are THEIR notebooks?

      ( Where are the books belong to them?


The basic feature of Possessive

It is used in place of a noun.

 e.g. Whose pen is this?

      This is Ankit’s pen.

      Suppose Ankit is standing in front of you. 

      You will say by pointing out Ankit that ” It is his pen.” 

      so here the word HIS has been replaced with 

      the noun-Ankit.

The Possessive Adjective is always used before the noun.

It informs us whom the things belong to.

It can be placed as a complement of the verb or as a Subjective case.

e.g. It is my purse. (Complement of a verb)

          

     My purse is on the table. (the subject of a verb)

A Possessive adjective is divided into Singular and Plural

Singular    

HIs- for a boy

Her- for a girl

your- II Person

Its- non-living/ideas

My- I Person

Your – Singular / Plural- II Person

Our- Plural- I Person

Their- III Person

‘ Your ‘  is used as a Singular and Plural also

A Possessive adjective is divided into Singular and Plural both:-

 

Singular    

My- First Person

HIs- for a boy

Her- for a girl

Your- II Person

Its- non-living/ideas

 

Plural

Your- singular/ plural – II Person

My- I Person

Our- Plural-  I Person

Their- III Person


USE OF SHOULD MUST OUGHT TO: MODAL VERBS SHOWING DUTIES/OBLIGATIONS: QUIZ SHOULD : MUST: OUGHT TO: MODALS: PERFECT INFINITIVE MODALS: SHOULD HAVE MUST HAVE OUGHT TO HAVE USES AND DIFFERENCES

Light Advice

You should leave now, it is getting late.

Should I talk to him on this matter?

Possible Advice

You should be at your home right now.

Informal request

Should I leave now?

Should I also join you for the party?

Past of Shall

He asked me if I should meet him after office.

In Place of ‘IF’

Should he had been at my place,

he would not be able to solve this problem.

                                     Or

If he had been at my place,

he would not be able to solve this problem.

Lest + should

( shows worriedness) 

 Walk carefully lest you should fall. (right )

Walk carefully lest you should 

not fall.(wrong )

 

USE OF MUST

Moral duties/obligations

We must always speak the truth.

We must not tell a lie.

You must always help the poor.

Probability of  action

When you are having 99% surety of any action to happen

When I invited him to attend my birthday party,  he got very happy.

He must be excited to join it.

Necessity

We must awake early in the morning to keep ourselves fit and fine.

We must always keep ourselves up to date.

Must we use this word?

Must we really leave for Delhi right now?

Must we really use the marks while moving out of the home?

Prohibition

We must not cross the road when the light turns red.

Fixed Expected /Determination

She thinks like me she must be my friend.

The person taking a round of the school must be the Principal.

USE OF OUGHT TO

High moral duty/obligation

We ought to save our earth.

We ought to respect our motherland.

We ought to respect our parents.

Strong possibility

Kishan said that Nikhil ought to win the race as he had worked very hard.

Smita  said that he ought to leave this place in any condition

She thinks like me she must be my friend.

The person taking a round of the school must be the Principal.

Strong Prohibitions

You ought not to leave your car unlocked.

You ought not to call him at this time.  

Note:  Uses of Modals Auxiliary Verbs are always flexible. So understand the rules thoroughly and tap only the closer ones that are closer.  

 

 

 

1. What ____I do now?

Correct! Wrong!

2. ______ we not listen to our elders ?

Correct! Wrong!

3. The preachers _______ follow the spiritual path first then preach others.

Correct! Wrong!

4. _______ it gets dark, I shall return in the morning.

Correct! Wrong!

5. Life is changing every moment . We_______ keep ourselves always up to date.

Correct! Wrong!

7. We ______ go against our parents.

Correct! Wrong!

8. Paint carefully lest you ______spoils all your work.

Correct! Wrong!

9. Sneha asked me if I ______go with her for searching for her lost watch.

Correct! Wrong!

9. Ananya ___never tell a lie.

Correct! Wrong!

10. _______ we follow his pieces of advice ?

Correct! Wrong!

11. We ____always respect out National emblems.

Correct! Wrong!

12. They are looking towards us consistently. They _____ be curios what we are doing.

Correct! Wrong!

13. You _______ leave the tap open. It is just wastage of water.

Correct! Wrong!

15. _____ I leave now ?

Correct! Wrong!

16. He has worked very hard. He ______ win this trophy this year.

Correct! Wrong!

SHOULD HAVE MUST HAVE OUGHT TO HAVE

Should have, Must have, Ought to have are all parts of Perfect Infinitive that show regret of any action that had not been done in the past or a strong possibility of any action based on facts referring to the past. But how they are different from one another let’s understand them one by one with different examples.

USE OF SHOULD HAVE

Should Have is used for showing repentance or regret in a general sense. In short, Should have shows something was the right to do but wasn’t done. Now there has left only regret.

Example:

  • It is no use in crying over spilled milk.I should have worked harder earlier for having a positive result. Now, there is no chance of filling in the form again.
  • I should have paid attention to my studies earlier.  Life never gives us the second chance.

USE OF OUGHT TO HAVE

‘Ought to have’ is also used in a sense of showing repentance or regret but it is used in some stronger sense i.e. ‘ought to’ leaves a deep sense of regret.

  • You ought to have checked all the papers before signing them Now, you have been left with nothing. All the property has been transferred to your younger brother.
 
Besides ‘ought to have ‘ is used in a sense of prohibition or warning also, showing the anger of the speaker, leaving  the listener with a feeling of repentance  
You ought to have asked my permission before using my mobile. I don’t like people touching my mobile.    

USE OF MUST HAVE

‘Must have’ is used in a sense of regret but with facts, figures or proofs.

  • I saw a child crying hardly in the fair. He must have lost his parents.
  • It was our last day in school,  you must have come.
  • The party was nice, you must have attended it.

Here we can notice the possibility of different actions is based on our direct experience, facts, or proof. Someone directly says , “the child crying hard”  then he concludes that his parents must have been lost that is why he is crying. In the same way in examples 2 and 3 ‘last school day’ and ‘attending a party \’ are two direct experiences of the speaker. So the use of ‘must-have’ will be more appropriate. 

REMEMBER

Remember ‘must have’ never  has the same meaning as ‘should have’. We use must have when we talk about a strong possibility based on facts referring to the past.

While ‘should have’ and  ‘must have’ show the regret but don’t have any proof that the work would have been done if they had done/they had not done some work earlier. But here in 

  ‘must have’ we can notice actions and repentance with proof

Exercise 

  1. You _______ have closed the door earlier. All the rainwater has been entered into the home.
  2. You ________ caught him red-handed. He has escaped himself very safely now.
  3. I found my best friend crying. She ______ failed.
  4. I _______ written the answers neatly. I might get good marks.
  5. Jennie is beating his brother hardly. He _____ done something wrong again
  6. Kavya’s money has been stolen from her drawer. She ________locked her drawer.  
  7. Divyam is crying hard. He ______ lost his bike.
  8. Jatin ___________ given his board examinations. He is not getting any good job now.
  9.  I ___________ seen the the papers before signing them. I have lost everything now.

  10. I ______ have gone with you. You have been injured worse. 

 

  1. Must have
  2. Ought to have
  3. Must have
  4. Should have
  5. Must have
  6. Ought to  have
  7. Must have
  8. Should have
  9. Ought to have
  10. Should have
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