REPORTED SPEECH(PART 8):OPTATIVE SENTENCE

An Optative sentence expresses

WISH

CURSE

PRAY

Sentences often start with ‘ May’ adding an exclamation mark.

May you live long !

May you go to hell !

Good morning !

HOW TO CHANGE

a. Comma and Inverted commas( ,” “) witll be changed into conjunction – that

b. Optative sentence will be changed into Assertive Sentence

c. Exclamation mark ( ! ) will be changed into Full stop (.)

c. Said / said will be changed into the following ways:-

Reporting VerbReported Speech
  Said to ( Pray )  Wished/ Prayed
  Said to (  Cursed  )Cursed
 Said to ( wishes  )wished
optative
Learn with Video

Example

PRAY

HOW TO CHANGE A PRAYER

DIRECT: Milan said to Jiya , “ May you achieve a grand success in your life .”

INDIRECT: Milan wished Jiya that she might achieve a grand success in her life.

DIRECT: Antima said, “ May you live long !”

INDIRECT: Antima said that I might live long.

CURSE

HOW TO CHANGE A CURSE

DIRECT: Akshita said to him , “May you go to hell.”

INDIRECT: Akshita cused him that he might go to hell.

WISHES

HOW TO CHANGE A WISH

If there is a wish in the Reported Speech, ‘said to’ in Reporting

verb is changed into wished or bade.

Thus It can be changed in two ways.

DIRECT: Ankita Ankita said to me , ” Good evening.”

INDIRECT: Ankita wished me good evening.

INDIRECT: Ankita bade me good evening

OR

INDIRECT: Ankita wished good evening to me.

INDIRECT: Ankita bade good evening to me

Be attentive of the following sentence:-

DIRECT: She said to me, “Good bye ! We’ll meet soon again.”

INDIRECT: She wished me good bye and said that we would meet soon again.

OR

INDIRECT: She wished me good bye saying that we would meet soon again soon.

Exercise 8

HOW TO SOLVE OPTATIVE SENTENCES

  1. I said to Anand, “May you succeed in your examination!”
  2. Disha said to me, “God may bestow you all the physical and spiritual powers!”
  3. The hermit said to Vishwa, “ May God bless you with a son!”
  4. The saint said to the crocodile, “ May you meet with your death soon!”
  5. Akriti said to Sukriti , “ Happy Deepawali!”
  6. She said, “ May Maa bless you with all the happiness of the world!”
  7. The son said, “ Good morning, Mumma!”
  8. She said, “ May God bless you.”
  9. Anushka said to Simran, “Happy Birthday! Have you arranged for any party today?”
  10. Namisha said, “ Long live our princess! “

PRACTICE MORE WITH THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES

1. She said ,” May Deeksha win this race.” 

 She wished that ___________

   a. Deeksha may win this race 

 b. Deeksha might win that race   

c.Deeksha must win this race  

 d.Deeksha must win that race 

Ans Deeksha might win that race. 

2.  The beggar said to him, ” May you prosper in life.”   

  The beggar blessed him saying  that ____ 

   a. he may prosper in life.

   b. he must prosper in life.

   c. he should prosper in life .

   d he might prosper in life 

  Ans. The beggar blessed him saying that he might prosper in life.


3. My friend said to me, ” Good morning!  I am happy to see your face.”   

My friend wished me _______ and said that _____ 

 a. good morning and said that he was happy to see my face.
b. good morning saying that he is happy to see my face. 
c. good morning and said that he was happy to see his face.

d. good morning and said that he had been happy to see my face.

Ans. good morning and said that he was happy to see my face.

4. Ravi said to ,” Good morning , my friend.”

Ravi bade _________

a. good morning my friends

b. his friends good morning

c. to his friends ,good morning

d. his friends that good morning

Ans. good morning to his friends

5. Jensie said, ” May you alwys be happy, Divyam.”

Jensie wished Divyam that ________

a. you might always be happy

b. he might always be happy

c. he may always be happy

d. you might alwys be happy

Ans. b. he might always be happy

6. ” Happy journey, my cutie pie.” said Sunny to his daughter.

Addressing her daughter as his cutie pie Sunny_______

a. said her daughter happy journey

b. told her daughter to have a happy journey

c. wished happy journey to her daughter

d. wished happy journey to his daughter

Ans. d. wished happy journey to his daughter

7. The son said, ” Good morning , Mumma !”

The son _______

a. wished his mother good morning

b. wished good morning to his mother

c. conved good morning to his mother

d. a & b both

Ans. d. a & b both are correct

8. He said to me,” May you have a happy journey !

He wished me _________

a. that I might have a happy journey

b. that I may have a happy journey

c. that may I have a happy journey

d. to have a happy journey

Ans. a. that I might have a happy journey.

8. The hermit said to the traveller , ” May you go to dogs!”

The hermit_______

a. told the traveller to go to dogs

b. wished the traveller to go to dog

c. wished the traveller that he might go to dogs

d. cursed the traveller that he might go to dogs

Ans. d. cursed the traveller that he might go to dogs

10. Anand said to Krishna, ” Good night , we will talk about

this matter tomorrow morning.”

Anand ______

a. wished Krishna good night and said that they

would talk about this matter tomorrow

b. wished Krishna good night and said that they

would talk about this matter the previous day

c. wished Krishna good night and said that they

would talk about that matter in the morning

d. wished Krishna good night and said that they

would talk about that matter the next day

d. Ans. wished Krishna good night and said that they

would talk about that matter the next day

11. Drishti said to Samridhi, ” May you meet with your misfortune!”

Drishti cursed Samridhi that ______

a. that she may meet with your misfortune

b. that she might meet with your misfortune

c. that she might meet with her misfortune

d. that she might meet with his misfortune

Ans. c. that she might meet with her misfortune

12. I said to my son, ” May you be the saviour of mankind.”

I wished my son that _________

a. he might be the saviour of mankind

b. he may be the saviour of mankind

c. he should be the saviour of mankind

d. he must be the saviour of mankind

ans. that he might be the saviour of mankind

REPORTED SPEECH (Part 7)EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES

EXCLAMATORY ARE THE STATEMENTS THAT SHOW

HAPPINESS

SORROW

SURPRISE

REGRET

APPLAUSE

Following are the words that express

HAPPIENES –     Hurrah! Oh !

SORROW–        Alas! Ah ! Oh !

SURPRISE-         Wow !What a great , How

REGRET  –    Oh my goodness !

APPLAUD/PRAISE-         Bravo ! Well Done !   

HOW TO CHANGE

a. Comma and Inverted commas( ,” “) will be changed into conjunction – that

b. Exclamatory sentence will be changed into Assertive Sentence

c. Exclamation mark ( ! ) will be changed into Full stop (.)

c.Said / said to  and exclamation phrases are changed into the following ways:-

Reporting VerbReported Speech
  Said to (HAPPINESS)  Exclaimed with joy/ happiness/delight
  Said to ( SORROW ) Exclaimed with sorrow
 Said to ( Surprise ) Exclaimed with surprise/ delight
Said to ( REGRET ) Exclaimed with regret
Said to (  Applause ) Applauded / Praised saying that….

Examples

HAPPIENSS

Namita said to Riya , “ Hurrah ! I have stood first in the class .”

Namita exclaimed Riya with joy that she had stood first in the class.

Divya said, “ Wow ! We have won the match.”

Divya exclaimed with  joy that they had won the match.

SORROW

Akshita said , “ Alas  ! I have lost the match .”

Akshita exclaimed with sorrow that she had lost the match.

Divya said to Nikhil , “ Ah! We have lost the match .”

Divya exclaimed  Nikhil  with sorrow that they had lost the match.

REGRET 

Uday said  , “ Oh God ! I lost my key”

Uday exclaimed with regret that they had lost his key.

Niti said, “ Oh ! There is no hope now.”

Niti exclaimed with regret that there was no hope then.

Applause / Praise  

The teacher said to the boys,” Bravo ! You have played well.”

The teacher applauded the boys saying that they had played well.

Disha said, “ Well done ! You did your job perfectly.”

Disha said that she had done her job perfectly. 

SURPRISE 

Simran said , “ What a great fall !”

Simran exclaimed with delight that it was a great fall.

Nishi said, “ How beautiful the rain is !”

Nishi exclaimed that it was a very beautiful rain.

NOTE

a. How/ What will be changed into –very / great

b. In surprises – said /said to can be changed into only exclaimed only.

WITH JOY or WITH SORROW is not every time necessary to be added.

Exercise 7

How to change an Exclamatory Sentence

The girl said , “ Hurrah ! I found my lost ring.”

a. They said, “ Alas ! She lost her dog. “

b. Sahe said, “ What a horrible snake it is !”

c. He said to me, “ Wow ! It was the picture, I wanted for.”

d. Divya said to Dipti, “ How clever you are !”

e. “ How pretty this sparrow is!” said said Mitu to Kirti.

f. He said, “ What a dark night is it !”

g. The captain said to the team, “ Bravo ! You hit the stroke.”

“f. Good heavens ! I dropped my keys somewhere. “ Saumit said to Samarth.

g. Ankit said to me, “ Oh ! Our beautiful garden has been spoiled due to hail.”

h. Avanti said ,” Alas ! I lost my beautiful pen.”

PRACTICE WITH SOME MORE EXERCISES

1. ” How pretty you are ! ” said the fox to the crow. 

The Fox exclaimed with surprise that _________he is very pr​​etty 

a. He were very pretty 

b. He had been very pretty 

c. he was very pretty 

d. he was very pretty 

Ans. d. he was very pretty. 

2. Poonam said ,” Hurrah ! I have won the competition. “

Poonam exclaimed with joy that she ______

a. had won the competition 

b. she had won the competition 

c. I had won the competition 

d. we had won the competition 

Ans. b. she had won the competition 

3. They said to me,” What a nice flower it is !”

They exclaimed me that _______

a. it has been a nice flower 

b. it was a nice flower 

c. that was a nice flower

d. it had been a nice flower 

Ans. b It was a nice flower. 

4. The boy said , ” What a fine picnic it was ! ” 

The boy exclaimed that ________

a. t has been a nice picnic 

b. It had been a nice picnic 

c. It was a nice picnic 

d. That was a nice picnic.

Ans. It was a nice picnic 

5. Nandini said ” Alas ! My friend has met with an accident. ” 

Nandini exclaimed with sorrow that ___________.

a. her friend was met with an accident 

b. my friend had met with an accident 

c. her friend had met with an accident 

d. my friend has met with an accident

Ans. that her friend had met with an accident 

6. Arjuna said to Rishika, ” Oh ! We have got a new home.”

Arjuna exclaimed Rishika with joy _______

  a. that he had got a new home 

b. that they had got a new home 

c. that we had got a new home 

d. that we had got a new home

Ans. that they had got a new home.

7. Akshat said ,” Hurrah ! We have booked our flight.” 

Akshat exclaimed with happiness that _______

a. they had booked their flight 

b. we have booked our flight 

c. they have booked their flight 

d. we had booked our flight 

Ans. they had booked their flight 

8. Nisha said to us , ” Bravo !  You have played well. ” 

Nisha applauded us saying that ______

a. we had played well

b. they has played well

c. we have played well 

d. they have played well 

Ans. we had played well. 

9 . The teacher said to me, ” Congratulations! You  have stood first. ” 

The teacher congratulated me ______

a. that I had stood first 

b. saying that I had stood first 

c. that you had stood first 

d. saying that I have stood first. 

Ans. saying that I had stood first.  

10. I said ,” Alas! I have lost my bunch of keys. “

I exclaimed with sorrow that _______

a.  he had lost his bunch of keys 

b. I had lost my bunch of keys 

c. she has lost his bunch of keys 

d. I have lost my bunch of keys 

Ans. I had lost my  bunch of keys 

PRACTICE WITH MIXED UP EXERCISE

PRACTICE WITH A DIALOUGE

Priya : Look, what is there  ?

    Jiya: Wow ! What a pretty bird it is !

    PrIya:  Have you seen  it before?

    Jiya : No, I haven’t.

Priya: Alas ! you could not see one more pretty bird here.

Jiya : Oh! It is really sad.

Priya aksed Jiya in amazement what ______ Jiya exclaimed

with surprise_________   Priya asked Jiya again if she had seen it before. 

Jiya replied that _______. Priya exclaimed with sorrow that ______

Answer

Priya asked Jiya in amazement what there was. Jiya exclaimed with surprise that it was a nice bird.  Priya asked Jiya again if she had seen it before. Jiya replied that she had not. Priya exclaimed Jiya with sorrow that she could not see one more pretty bird. Jiya also exclaimed with unhappiness that it was really sad.

REPORTED SPEECH(Part6B): IMPERATIVE SENTENCES: SUGGESTIONS STARTING WITH LET US, LET’S AND LET + ( ME, YOU, THEM, HIM, HER, IT)

II. TYPE 2: Request / Advice – beginning with – Let +us

Sometimes Imperative sentences start with LET US.

So if the request advice starts with

The changes will take place in the following ways:-

a.

Reporting VerbReported Speech
  said/ Said to /told  proposed / suggested
  said/ Said to /told+ objectproposed / suggested+ to
HOW TO CHANGE ‘SAY’ IN IMPERATIVE SENTENCES

a. Said / said to / told – will be replaced with   –  proposed / suggested

Example:

DIRECT : He said , ” Let us wait for Siya for sometime.”

INDIRECT: He proposed that we should wait for Siya for sometime.

NOTE : If we have object after said , it will be replaced with –

proposed to/ suggested to+

Example:

DIRECT: He said to Disha, ” Let us play carom for sometime.”

INDIRECT: He proposed to Disha that they should play carom for sometime.

Learn With Video :

b. Comma /Inverted Commas (, “ “ )-

will be replaced with – THAT

c. ‘LET ‘- will be changed in – we/they ( as per noticing the object and subject,)

If you notice the SUBJECT/OBJECT of 1st person in the reporting verb,

it will be changed into ‘WE’- as a subject of Reported Speech

If you notice the subject /object of Reporting Verb in the 2nd or 3rd person, it will be changed into ‘THEY’. as a subject of Reported Speech

c. US – will be changed in to SHOULD / MUST

EXAMPLE:-

Direct : Siya said to Diya, ” Let’s go to movie.”

INDIRECT: Siya proposed to Diya that they must go to movie.

DIRECT: Anuj said to me , ” Let us play chess.”

INDIRECT: Anuj suggested to me that we should play chess.

DIRECT: Ankita said , ” Let’s have a cup of coffee. “

INDIRECT: Ankita proposed that we must have a cup of coffee.

OR

INDIRECT: Ankita suggested that they must have a cup of coffee.

III. TYPE 3: Request / Advice/ Order beginning  with Let + Other Object

In the third type of Imperative sentences , we find the sentences that

start with other objective cases except US, which start with-

Let +me, you, him, her, it and them ( except us)

Basic points to ponder :-

If we find Advice / Request / Order in 3rd type of Imperative sentences,

the changes will take place in the following ways:-

Affirmative

a. Said / said to  in Reporting Verb will be changed in

  —— requested /advised / ordered

 b. Comma , Inverted Commas ( ‘ ” “) will be changed into ( to/ not to )

c. LET – will be changed into – TO LET

Request

DIRECT: Anuj said to his boss, “Let me go home soon today.”

INDIRECT: Anuj requested his boss to let him go home soon that day.

Advice

DIRECT: Avantika said , “ Let him go.”

INDIRECT: Avantika advised to let him go.

DIRECT: Avni said to me , ” Do not let him go.”

INDIRECT:Avni advised me not yo let him go.

Order

DIRECT: Vaishali said to her secretary, “ Let her do her work by herself.”

INDIRECT: Vaishali ordered her secretaryto let her do her work by herself.

Exercise 6

a. I said to my friend, “Let’s play tennis.”

b. Anish said, “Let’s go for a walk.”

c. Nikita said to Purvi, “ Let’s wait for 2 minutes more.”

d. “ Let’s prepare our children to defeat this pandemic.”, said the educationist.

e. “ Let me check this post again.” Said Suman to Sneha.

f. Maddy said to Darshan, “ Let him handle whole this drama.”

g. Subhan said to Shoaib, “ Let everyone attend the party first.”

h. The mother said to her daughter, “ Let you put only a little oil in the vegetable.”

i. Divyam said to Salman, “ Let there be silence unless my online class finishes.”

j. “ Let us make ourselves strong to fight against covid19 .” said the health minister to the public. 

k. “ Let’s have a party this Sunday. “said Satyam to Gaurav.

l. Gaurav, said “ “Let’s not.”

m. Shweta said to Ananya, “ Let us have one cup of coffee more.”

n. Ananya said to Shweta, “Let’s have.”

PRACTICE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES

Opt out the correct one:-

  1. .Ram said to me , “Let us sing together.”

Ram proposed to me that _____ sing together. 

a. he must

b. we must

c. they must

Ans. b. we must

2. Nikhil said to his friends ” Let me do it immediately.”

Nikhil suggested to his friends that ______do it immediately. 

a. we should

b. they should

c. he should

Ans. b. they should

3. Smita said to her younger sister, ” Let me do my homework first. ” 
Smita ordered her sister _______ do her homework first.

a. to let me

b. to let her

c. to let him

Ans. to let her
4. Akshay said to her mom, ” Let me go to play outside .”

Akshay requested his mom _____  play outside.

a. to let him go to

b. that he should go to

c. to let them go to

Ans. a. to let him go to

5. He said to me , ” Let us start tomorrow.”

He proposed to me that ____the next day.

a. we must start

b. they must start

c. you must

Ans. a. we must

6. “Let me pick some flowers.” The child said to the gardener.

The child requested the gardener ______some flowers.

a. to let me pick

b. that let her pick

c. to let her pick

Ans. a. to let him

 g. He said in anger, ” Let the boy go alone if he wants so.”

He ordered in anger ________ if he wanted. 

a. to let him go alone

b. to let the boy go alone

c. that the boy go alone

Ans. c. let the boy go alone

h. She said to her sisters,” Let us enjoy some music .” 

She proposed to her sisters ________ enjoy some music.

a. that we must enjoy some music.

b. that they must enjoy some musi.

c. to enjoy some music.

I. Gautam said to me ,” Let us have a party tonight. ” 

Gautam proposed to me _______ have party that night.

a. that he should

b. to we should

c. that we should

Ans. c. that we should

j. The cat said to the rat ,” Let us start on a pilgrimage. ” 

The cat suggested to the rat that _____ start on a pilgrimage.  

a. we should

b. they should

c. she should

Ans. b. they should

REPORTED SPEECH:(PART 6A): IMPERATIVE SENTENCES: HOW TO CHANGE ORDER, REQUEST, ADVICE

As we know ,all the sentences that express – order, requests , advice, suggestions,

are called Imperative Sentences. They are again sub divided as

I. TYPE1: Request / Advice / Order –     beginning with main Verb / Do not

II. TYPE 2: Request / Advice / Order–     beginning with Let +us

III. TYPE 3: Request / Advice/ Order      beginning  with Let + Other Object

So first we SHALL study , Request / Advice / Order –

I. ‘How to change Imperative Sentences’ beginning with –

     – Main Verb / Do not

So the changes will take place in the following ways:-

Reporting VerbReported Speech
  Said to (Order)  ordered / instructed /commanded
  Said to ( Advice )advised
  Said to ( Request )requested/ urged
HOW TO CHANGE ‘SAY’ IN IMPERATIVE SENTENCES

Sometimes all these verbs can be replaced with ‘ asked ‘or some other related synonyms. But at the initial level try to practice with the above-given verbs.

I. Imperative Sentences Affirmative Order

a. Said / said to – will be replaced with   –  ordered /instructed /commanded

b. Comma /Inverted Commas (, “ “ )- will be replaced with infinitive ( to + V1)

Example:-

DIRECT: The teacher said to Richa , “ Close all the windows before leaving

 the classroom.”

INDIRECT: The teacher ordered Richa to close all the windows before leaving

 the classroom.

DIRECT: Vanshika said to Shruti , “ Stop chattering. “

INDIRECT: Vanshika instructed Shruti to stop chattering.

DIRECT: Shruti said to Rishika, ” Return my pen. “

INDIRECT: Shruti commanded Rishika to return her pen.

II. Imperative SentencesNegative-Order

a. Said / said to will be replaced with ordered /instructed / commanded Commas and Inverted commas will be replaced again with Infinitive

b. ,,“ “ – infinitive ( to + V1)Do not/ Don’t will be replaced with not to / forbade

c. Do not – not to/ forbade

Example

Naman said to Abhishek,“ Don’t disturb me.”

Naman ordered Abhishek not to disturb him.

  or

Naman forbade Abhishek to disturb him.

NOTE : Forbade already takes Negative form so the sentence will not take NOT.

III. Imperative SentenceAdvice

Affirmative/ Negative

  • Said / said to – Advice   –  advised
  • , “ “ —– infinitve ( to + V1)
  • Do not/ Don’t – not to/ forbade

DIRECT: Rahim said to Shubhanshu , ” Work hard and win the world.”

INDIRECT: Rahim advised Shubhanshu to work hard and win the world.

DIRECT: arsh said to Sumit,“ Do not waste your time.”

INDIRECT: Harsh advised Sumit not to waste his time.

  or

INDIRECT: Harsh forbade Sumit to waste his time.

IV. Imperative SentencesAdvice

Affirmative/ Negative

a. Said / said to will be replaced with  advised

b. Comma/Inverted commas will be replaced with TO

, “ “ —– ( to + V1)

c. Do not/ Don’t will be replaced with not to/ forbade

DIRECT: Manas said to Mansi ,” Never believe on the strangers.”

INDIRECT: Manas advised Mansi never to believe on strangers.

  or

INDIRECT: Sanskriti forbade Mansi to believe on the strangers.

V. Imperative Sentences Request

Affirmative/ Negativ

a. Said / said to is changes into – requested/ urged

b. Comma/Inverted commas will be changed into Infinitive(to+v1)

, “ “ – ( to + V1

c. Do not/ Don’t will be replaced with not to/ forbade

d. The words of request i.e please or kindly are removed in Indirect speech as they are already replaced with request.

DIRECT: Shivani said to Shivam , “ Please, give me your notes for sometime.”

INDIRECT: Shivani requested Shivam to give her his notes for sometime.

DIRECT: Siya said to Diya , “ Kindly help me .”

INDIRECT: Siya requested Diya to help her.

NOTE: Sometimes requests start with could, would and can like-

“Could I use you pen, please.”

“Would you please tell me the way to the seaport ,please ?”

Though the sentences are in the Question form but their indirect speech will be framed only in request. Because the sentences mentioned above are making requests.

Example:

DIRECT: Riya said to Diya , ” Could you please help me in completing my project?”

INDIRECT: Riya requested Diya to help her in completing her project.

Remember: question mark will be removed and Indirect speech will be started directly

as from the INFINITIVE ( To+V1) as the sentence of Direct Speech is assumed as a ‘request’ not a ‘question’.

Exercise 5

1.My friend said to me , ” Do what you wish.”

2. The doctor said to the patient , ” Have a walk early in the morning daily.”

3. The officer said to  the guard, ” Lock the gate sharp at 6 pm.”

4. ” Have patience and keep on practicing.” ,said Saba to Zeenat

5. Dhruv said, ” Get out of my room and don’t show me your face again.”

6. Nikhil said to Ravita , ” Never waste your energy in such a tedious task.”

8. ” Could you help me to complete this project?” , Jaya said to Nisha.

9. Deepa said, “Would you pay me in cash, please ?”

10 . Divyam said to Rita, ” Behave properly before elders.”

PRACTICE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES

Opt out the correct one:-

1. The master said to the servant,” Bring me a cup of milk.”

The master ordered the servant______a cup of milk.

a. to bring me a cup of tea

b. to bring him a cup of tea.

c. that he must bring him a cup of tea.

Ans. b.

2. He said to Anshika , “Don’t disturb me”

He forbade Anshika _______

a. not to disturb her

b. that she should not disrurb him

c. to disturb him.

Ans.c

3. The sage said, ” Trust in God and do the right.”

The sage advised _______

a. to trust in God and do the right.

b. that trust in God and do the right.

c. Archan said to Sunidhi ,” Please, help me to lift this heavy box. “

4. Archana requested Sunidhi _____lift that heavy box.

a. to please help her to

b. to help her to

5. “Help the helplesss” said Bryan to me.

Brayan advised me _______

a. to help the helpless..

b. that help the helpless.

c. that I must help the helpless.

Ans. a

6. The old man said to the stranger,” could you help me to cross the road?”

The old man ______ the stranger ______

a. asked , if he could help him to cross the road.

b. requested, if he could help him to cross the road.

c. requested, to help him to cross the road.

Ans. c

7. ” Sit down and learn your lesson ,boys.” said the teacher to the students.

The teacher ordered the boys_____

a. to sit down and learn their lesson.

b. to sit down and learn his lesson .

c. that sit down and learn their lesson.

Ans. a

8. She said, ” Would you give me a glass og water ,please?”

She requested _______

a. to give him a glass of water.

b. to give her a glass of water.

c. that give her a glass of water .

Ans.b

REPORTED SPEECH (Part 5): HOW TO CHANGE AN INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE

Basic points to ponder:-

KINDS OF INTERROGATIVE

As we know ,there are two kinds of Interrogative sentences:-

Type 1 – That start with Auxiliary Verb

Type 2 – That start with ‘ Wh family’ words

Type 2 is again sub divided in 2 parts

Type 2a. question words starting with Wh family words

Type 2b. question word starting with ‘How’ ( How much/How many )

TYPE 1

Basic Rules of Changing

HOW TO CHANGE AUXILIARY VERB

( If beginning with helping / auxiliary verb)

a. Said/ said to is changed in ASKED / ENQUIRED OF

( Said to – asked/ enquired of )

NOTE: Some times asked / enquired of is already given

in Reporting Verbs So don’t get confused , they will remain same.

b. Commas / Inverted Commas are converted into if / whether

Comma / Inverted Comma (,  ” “  )-   if/whether

c. Interrogative sentences are changed into Assertive Sentences

Interrogative sentence -Assertive Sentence

i) Interrogative – Positive

ii) Interrogative Negative – Simple Negative

d. Question Mark ( ?)will be chamged into full stop   ( .)

(? )- (. )

Examples:-

Direct : Ananya said to me , “ Does Shweta like chocolate ?”

Ananya asked me if Shweta liked chocolate.

Direct : Rama said to Roshni , “ Do you not like coffee ?”

Rama enquired of Roshni if she did not like coffee.

Direct : Nisha said to Neha, “Did  Avni  return your book ?”

Nisha asked Neha if Avni had returned her book.

Type 1

EXERCISE 4A

a.)( Interrogative starting with helping Verbs)

  1. Ankush said to me , “Can you spare some time for me?”
  2. I said to Nisha , “ Are you not feeling well here”
  3. You said to Arunima, “ Will you lend me your pen?
  4. Sheetal said to Akshat, “ Did you meet Akash yesterday ?”
  5. Anshuman said to Pratibha, “ Had you seen this movie before ?”
  6. Aditi  said , “ Didn’t you look into the matter deeply?”
  7. She said to Sumya,” May I use your pen for some time?
  8. Nishi said to Rachna, “ Won’t you like to have a cup of coffee with me?
  9. Divya said to Shivam, “ Did Naman come to meet you yesterday ?”
  10. Raunak said to Abhishek, “ Have you seen Sagar anywhere ?”

How to change ‘WH FAMILY WORDS’

Basic points to ponder( If Reported :Speech starts with ‘ Wh family’ words-

Type 2a. ( Wh family words)

a. Said to – asked/ enquired of

b. Comma / Inverted Comma (, ” “ ) ——-  No change

‘Whfamily’ words are conjunctions in themselves ( So no extra conjunction )

c. Interrogative Sentences are changed into Assertive sentences

(Interrogative – Assertive)

Interrogative – Positive

Interrogative Negative – Simple Negative

d. Question mark will be replced with full stop.

[(•(?) – ( .)]

Examples:-

Direct : Kajal said to Silky , “ Why does  Anshu waste her time?”

Kajal asked Silky why Anshu wasted her time.

Direct : Stuti  said to Sneha , “ Why did you not join the party with me today ?”

Stuti enquired of Sneha why she had not joined the party with her that day.

Direct : Akriti said to Riya,” When will Anushka come?”

Akriti asked Riya when Anushka would come.

Basic points to ponder:-

HOW TO CHANGE HOW MUCH HOW MANY

Type 2b.

If question words start with ( How Much/ How many)

a. Said to -asked/ enquired of •

  b. Comma/Inverted commas ” “  ——-  No Connector

The question word HOW is a conjunction in itself ( So no extra conjunction is needed)

So How much and How many are never replaced

c. An Interrogative Sentence is changed into Assertive sentence-

Interrogative sentence —-   Assertive Sentence

Interrogative – Positive

Interrogative Negative – Simple Negative(?)  ( .)

Examples:-

Direct : Saurabh said to Shivansh , “ How many apples would you like to have ?.”

Saurabh asked Shivansh how many apples he would like to have.

Direct : Shubham said to Tejas , “ Why did you not join the party with me today ?”

Shubham enquired of Tejas why he had not joined the party with him that day.

Type 2 & 3

EXERCISE 4B

(Interrogative starting with Whfamily Words)

  1. Babita said, “ When are you going to meet me ?
  2. Sneha said to Pakhi , “ Why are you so worried ?
  3. Bhumi said to Anku, “ How many pencils did she buy last week?”
  4. Priyanshu said to Kesri , “ Why are you teasing your friend?”
  5. Kainat said to Saloni , “ Why hadn’t you complete your work till now ?”
  6. “ Where is my mobile ?” said Nidhi to Khushi .
  7. Abhishek said to Rahul, “ Whose book was Ayush asking for ?”
  8. Manas said to Rahim, “ Which watch are you asking for?”
  9. “ How are you ?” asked Riya .
  10. Ridhim said to Ridhima, “ How have you done so the toughest task ?”

Exercise : Choose the correct option

  1. The lady said to the girl,” Do you live in this house?”

The lady asked the girl______

a. that I lived in that house

b. if I lived in that house.

c. if she lived in that house.

Ans. c

2. ” What is this tool for ?” said the girl to her sister.

The girl_____ her sister ________

a. asked- what that tool was made for.

b. asked – what was that toll made for.

c. told that what that tool was made for.

Answer a

3. Ram said to his friend, ” Can you tell me the way to the bus stop ?

Ram ____ his friend_____

a. said – could hetell him the way to the bust stop ?

b. enquired of -if he could tell him the way to the bus stop.

c. asked – if could he tell him the way to the bus stop.

Ans. b

4. The teaher said to Mohit, “Would you like to go on a trip ?”

The teacher enquired of Mohit____

a. if he would like to go on a trip.

b. that he would like to go on a trip

c. would he like to go on a trip

Answer : a

5. ” Where is your umbrella ?” asked Mohit from his sister.

Mohit asked his sister _____

a. where her umbrella was.

b. where her umbrella is.

c. where was her umbrella.

Answer: a

6. Meera said, ” Will you listen to me , Jack ?”

Meera asked Jack _______

a. would he listen to her

b. will he listen to her

c. if he would listen to her

Ans -c

7. Belinda said to elfs, ” Can you bring me the fairest rose ?”

Belinda asked elf if ______

a if they can bring her the fairest rose.

b. if they could bring her the fairest rose

c. could they bring her the fairest rose.

Ans: b

8. Shivam said to Shivani, ” May I use your pen ?”

Shivam asked Shivani ___________.

a. if he might use his pen

b. if I might use your pen

c. if he might use her pen.

Ans: c

REPORTED SPEECH:(Part-4): HOW TO CHANGE THE PERSON /ADVERB OF TIME

Before learning how to change the person of a Reported Speech,try to Understand the following chart:-

 

PERSONS AND CASES OF A PRONOUN



 

A Pronoun has 3 persons & 4 cases :-

Person Nominative Case
(Subject)  
Objective
Case
(Object)
Possessive
Case
Reflexive
Case
I     I We Me Us My Our Myself / Ourselves
II You You Your Yourself/ Yourselves
III He She It They Him Her It Them His Her Its Their Himself Herself Itself Themselves
CASES OF PERSON

1. If there is any First Person irrespective of the cases in Reported Speech, it will be changed according to the Person, Number and Gender of the  SUBJECT of the Reporting Verb

 

Example

DIRECT: Kirti said to me, “I can do my work myself.”

INDIRECT: Kirti told me that she could do her work herself

DIRECT: Aman said to Disha , “ I can do my work myself. ”

INDIRECT: Aman told me that he could do his work himself

1. If there is any First Person in Reported Speech ,it will be changed

      according to the Person, Number and Gender of the  SUBJECT of

      the Reporting Verb

Example

DIRECR: The boys said , “ we can do our work ourselves.”

INDIRECT: The boys said that they could their work themselves.

Exception  

DIRECT: Avni said to Disha , “ We are going to play soon.”

INDIRECT: Avni told Disha that they were going to play soon.

2. ( a) If there is any Second  Person irrespective of the cases in Reported Speech ,

it will be changed according to the Person, Number and Gender

of the OBJECT of  the Reporting Verb

Example:-

DIRECT: Kirti said to me, “You can do your work Yourself.”

INDIRECT: Kirti told me that I could do my work myself.

DIRECT: Aman said to his friends , “You can do our work ourselves.”

INDIRECT: Aman told  his friends that they could do their work themselves.

2.(b)If there is any Second  Person irrespective of the cases in Reported Speech ,

it will be changed according to the Person, Number and Gender

of the OBJECT of  the Reporting Verb

but if you find no object in Reported Speech , you have to the change it according to the 1st /3rd person ( that would be in hidden form) in Reporting Verb i.e. we have to assume it either 1st person /3rd person ,Singular/plural with the clear reading and understanding the Reporting Verb

Eg.

DIRECT: Garima said , “ You are very nice. ”

(Assume Object as FIRST / THIRD PERSON)

INDIRECT: Garima said that I was very nice

or

INDIRECT: Garima said that she was very nice.

or

INDIRECT: Garima said that  he was very nice.

or

INDIRECT: Garima said that they were very nice.

Eg.

DIRECT: Garima said , “ You are a  very nice girl.”

DIRECT: Garima said that she was very nice.

DIRECT: Garima said , “ You are a  very nice boy.”

INDIRECT: Garima said that  he was a very nice boy.

DIRECT: Garima said , “ You are very nice girls.”

INDIRECT: Garima told that they were very nice girls.”

 

3..If there is any Third Person in Reported Speech ,

   there will not be any kind of change in Person, Number or Gender

 of the Reported Speech-

(NO CHANGE)

Absence of Object in Reporting Verb

Example:-

DIRECT: Garima said to me , “ She can do her work herself.”

INDIRECT: Garima told me that she could do her work herself.

DIRECT: Garima said said to him, “ He can do his work himself. “

INDIRECT: Garima told him that  he could do his work himself.

DIRECT: Garima said , “ They can do their work themselves.”

INDIRECT: Garima said that they could do their work themselves.

Exercise 3

(How to change Person)

  1. He said to me, “ I have finished my work.”
  2. Shikha said to Sunita, “ You must not hurt yourself.”
  3. Garima said to Gita,“ She enjoyed her holidays well.”
  4. Divyansh said, “You are honest.”
  5. Divya said,“She must not waste her time.
  6. Deepak said to me, “ You should meet me tomorrow.”
  7. He said to me, “ I will return your notes tomorrow.”
  8. The teacher said “ You always come to late , Bhawna.”
  9. Deeksha said to me, “ You did not wait for me yesterday.”
  10. Akriti said to Rachna, “I can not talk to you anymore.”

ADVERB OF TIME

In Reported Speech nearness of time and position

are changed in the distance of time or position

REPORTING VERB REPORTED SPEECH
Ago Before
Come Go
Hence Thence
Hither Thither
Now Then
Here There
This That
These Those
Thus so
Tonight That night
Today That day
Tomorrow The next day
The following day
Yesterday The previous day
The day before
Last Previous
HOW TO CHANGE ADVERB

 

Exercise: How to change Person and Adverb

I. He said to me ,” He is a good reader. “

He told me that _________

a. he was a good reader

b. he had been a good reader.

c. he is a good reader.

Ans. a

2. Drishti says, ” My brother is very bright. “

Dristi says that _____ was very bright.

a. her brother

b. my brother

c. your brother

Ans. a

3. Jennie said to me, ” You must pay attention on your studies now.”

Jennie told me that ______pay attention on _____studies___.”

a. she must – her- ago

b. we must – our- now

c. I must – my – then

Ans. c.

4. The boys said,” We will follow our leader tonight.”

The boys said that _____ would follow ____ leader.

a. they -their- that night

b. we – our- tonight

c. he -his- no change

Ans. a

5. Prakriti says to me her younger sister, “I will return after the sunset.”

Prakriti informs her sister that ____ return after the sun set.

a. I would

b. she would

c. he would

Ans. b

6. Ritvik said , ” I could not deliver my lecture yesterday. “

Ritivik said that ____ could not deliver _____ lecture ______.

a. I – my – yesterday

b. he-his-the previous day

c. She- her- the previous day

Ans. b.

7 . Goldy says to Nisha , ” We’ll do it tomorrow.”

Goldy tells Nisha that they would do it _____.

a. The next day

b, The previous day

c. tomorrow.

Ans. a

8. Akriti said to Sumit,” Nikhil had come here in school yesterday.”

Ankrit reported Sumit that Nikhil had ___ _ ___in school ___.

a. Gone- there- the previous day

b. Come – here -yesterday

c. Gone – there the following day

Ans. a.

 

Reported Speech: DIRECT INDIRECT (Part 2 & 3)If Reported Verb is in Present/Future Tense / Past Tense WITH EXERCISES: CBSE BASES REPORTED SPEECH

HOW TO CHANGE THE TENSE OF REPORTED SPEECH

It is very important to understand how to change ‘SAY’ differently according to different tenses because one single wrong use of SAY will lead you to a wrong formation of the result, consequently your complete sentences will be marked wrong. So be very much attentive while changing the formation of ‘say ‘ in a Reported Speech.

1. HOW TO CHANGE ‘say’ in PRESENT TENSE

PRESENT

Kind of Sentence        Reporting Verb      Reported Speech     Connector
Assertive  Say 
Says
Say to
Says to  
is saying
is saying to
has/have said
has/have said to
has /have been saying
has/ have been saying to
 Say
says
tell
tells
is saying
is telling
has/have said
has/have told
has/have been saying
has/have been telling
    that
HOW TO CHANGE ‘SAY’ IN REPORTED SPEECH IN PRESENT TENSE

Sneha says to me,” Nikita likes to play chess very well”

Sneha tells that Nikita likes to play cricket.

Ritu has said, “ I have already won the match.”

Ritu has said that she has already won the match.

Deepak is saying, “ Nitin will come here today”

Deepak is saying that Nitin will go there that day.

Akshara has said to Anshi, I shall cook today. My mother is not fine.

Akshara has informed Anshi that she will cook that day because

her mother is not fine.

FUTURE

HOW TO CHANGE ‘SAY’ IN FUTURE TENSE

    Kind of Sentence   Reporting Verb       Reported SpeechConnector
Assertive
Will say
Will say to
Will have said
I will have said to
Will/ shall have been saying
Will/shall have been saying to

Will say
Will tell
will have said,
Will have told
Will/shall have been saying
Will / shall have been telling
that
Learn with video HOW TO CHANGE THE TENSE OF REPORTED SPEECH

HOW TO CHANGE THE TENSE OF REPORTED SPEECH

PART 1: IF REPORTING VERB IS IN PRESENT OR FUTURE TENSE

1. If Reporting Verb is in Present / Future Tense in Direct speech, there will not be any kind of change of Tense in Reported Speech:

eg.

Sneha says to me,” Nikita likes to play chess very well”

Sneha tells that Nikita likes to play cricket.

Ritu has said, “ I have already won the match.”

Ritu has said that she has already won the match.

Deepak is saying, “ Nitin will come here today”

Deepak is saying that Nitin will go there that day.

Deepika will say, ” Nikhil will be present tomorrow.”

Deepak will say that Nikhil would be present the next day.

I shall say to Siddhant, ” Mohini has failed. Her father has

forbidden her now to study anymore.

I shall tell to Siddhant that Mohini has failed as a result,

her father has forbidden her to study anymore.

Exercise 1

Please first solve the exercise then check the answers through the link given below.

a. I Radha says,” Tapan is a nice boy.”

b. Ankita says, ” They enjoyed the game.”

c. “I can’t beat you.” says Abhimanyu to Arjuna.

d. The teacher will say, ” These boys never complete their work.”

e. Ahana will be saying, ” I met with my best friend here Last year.”

f. Samridhi tells  Sukriti,”Amrita will be playing chess at this time tomorrow.”

g. “If you can not assist me”, says Pushpendra to his friend ” I will not be able to listen

to you in future.”

PART 2: IF REPORTING VERB IS IN PAST TENSE

So if there is a Past Tense in Reporting verb in Direct Speech, the changes in Reported Speech will take place according to the list given below:-

Direct Speech – Indirect Speech

Present Tense –   Past Tense

Past Tense –   Past Perfect

Past Perfect –    No Change

Past Perfect Continuous- No change

Will/Shall   – Would/ Should ( Be attentive to the Person)

Must –  Must / had to

Can –   could

May –   might

Would/could/should/ ought to

LEARN WIITH VIDEO: Start Timing 5:37

Should might/ might have/had to –

No change

CHANGES IN DETAIL :

WITH EACH PART OF TENSE

DIRECT SPEECHINDIRECT SPEECH
Simple PresentSimple Past
Present ContinuousPast Continuous
Present PerfectPast Perfect
Presnt Perfect ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous
PRESENT
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH
Simple PastPast Perfect
Past ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous
Past PerfectNo Change
Past Perfect ContinuosNo Change
PAST
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH
Will/shallWould/should
CanCould
MayMight
MustMust/ had to
Would/should/could/might/ /ought to /must have/ would have
could have/ should have / ought to have
No change
  HAPPY LEARNING! 
FUTURE / MODALS

HOW TO CHANGE ‘SAY’ IN REPORTED SPEECH:-

   Kind of Sentence                  Reporting Verb              Reported Speech Connector
Assertive  Say  Says Say to Says to Said Said to Told  say says tell Tells ( reports / ) said told (reported)     that

EXAMPLES:

If Reported Speech is in

Present

Sheetal said  , “ Minakshi likes to fly kite.”

Sheetal said that Meenakshi liked to fly kite.

Akanksha said to Aditya , Minakshi is flying a kite”

Akanksha told Aditya that Minakshi was flying a kite.

Amit said to Anshu , “ Antima has finished her coffee.”

Amit told Anshu that Antima had finished her coffee.

If Reported Speech is in

Past  

Sheetal said  , “ Minakshi liked to fly kite.”

Sheetal said that Minakshi had liked to fly kite.

Akanksha said to Aditya , Minakshi was flying a kite”

Akanksha told Aditya that Minakshi had been flying a kite.

Amit said to Anshu , “ Antima had finished her coffee.”

Amit told Anshu that Antima had finished her coffee.

If Reported Speech is in

Future  

Sheetal said  , “ Minakshi will  fly a kite.”

Sheetal said that Minakshi would fly a kite.

Akanksha said to Aditya , Minakshi will be flying a kite”

Akanksha told Aditya that Minakshi would be flying a kite.

Amit said to Anshu , “ Antima will have finished her coffee.”

Amit told Anshu that Antima would have finished her coffee.

If Reported Speech is in Modal Verbs:-

HOW TO CHANGE MODALS

DIRECT SPEECHINDIRECT SPEECH
Will/shallWould/should
CanCould
MayMight
MustMust/ had to
Would/should/could/might/ /ought to /must have/ would have
could have/ should have / ought to have
No change
   
FUTURE / MODALS

Examples:

Nikita said to me, ” I can not help you right now.”

Nikita told me that she could not help me right then .

Swati said , “I would like to have coffee. “

Swati said that that she would like to have coffee.

UNIVERSAL TRUTH SCIENTIFIC FACTS / HABITUAL SENTENCES

With universal truth/ general or scientific facts/ habitual sentences,

we must never change the Tense of Reported Speech

The teacher said to the students , “ The sun itself is a star.”

The teacher told the students that the sun itself is a star.”

Arjun said  , “ The cat runs after the rat.”

Arjun said  that the cat runs after the rat.

Rahul said to Ankur, “ Avishka always comes late.”

Rahul to Ankur that Avishka always comes late.

Sukriti said to Sanskrti , “Amisha use to have walk early morning .”

Sukriti told Sanskriti that Amisha use to have a walk early morning.

Exercise 2

Please first solve the exercise then check the answers through the link given below.

  1. Richard said, “Julia is writing a letter.”
  2. Ananya said to me. “He swims very well.”
  3. The sage said,” God loves all .”
  4. “ Ananya has been writing a poem for the last 2 hours”, said Disha to Nisha.
  5. The musician  said, “True music pours out from the hearts naturally.”
  6. Divya said, “ God saves those who save themselves.”
  7. He said, “ Angel has completed her work.”
  8. Ritvik said to me, I shall leave for  Vijayanagar soon.”
  9. “Cynthia is the Moon goddess according to Greek mythology.”, told the teacher to her students.
  10. “Nikita,”said Ashu to Gazala, “had not met with her sister yet.”

REPORTED SPEECH RULES: NARRATION: INDIRECT SPEECH (Part1): Introduction: What is a Reported Speech / Narration?

DEFINITION

Reported Speech is a formation of a sentence that we tell to someone,i.e. to the second person.

Thus based on a conversation, the words of the speaker can be formed in two ways:-

DIRECT

INDIRECT

LEARN WITH VIDEO

Thus two kinds of speeches came into existence

Direct Speech:

The teacher said to the monitor, “ I will be on a leave tomorrow. So collect the notebooks from all the students today only for correction.”

(When the speaker is directly saying something to the listener or when we are repeating the words of the speaker to the third person, is called Direct Speech.)

Indirect Speech:

The teacher told the monitor that she would be on a leave the next day and ordered her to collect all the notebooks from the students that day only.

( Thus when the listener is repeating the words of the speaker to the third person in a roundabout manner, is called Indirect Speech. )

PARTS OF DIRECT SPEECH

Now comes the formation of a Direct Speech-

 There are two parts of a Direct Speech: –

  • Reporting Verb
  • Reported Speech

Ankit said to Ankita , “ Ridhima reads very well.”

(Reporting Verb)     (Reported Speech )

The part or clause that comes outside of the inverted commas,is called Reporting Verb. The part that is locked inside the inverted commas, is called Reported Speech.

*Remember

Words before you start !

Welcome Learners !

Greetings !

I’m Meena Bilandani, M.A. (English)+Bachelor of Education, pursuing my passion of teaching for more than 15 years. I spend most of my time with my students and with my never-ending learning over here world’s most

spiritual land INDIA..

MEENA BILANDANII

Let’s begin a new journey!

Grammar learning is not an easy task. It is a tough row to hoe. A lot of practice with constant learning and then assimilating within is really a constant journey in itself that needs immense patience to carry on. Speaking and writing any language within a proper framing in a restricted structure, is really an art.

“ Grammar in spoken English is not needed ”, is only a prevalent myth. Yes, for beginners just to encourage them we say not to stick with a heavy set of burdens and keep on speaking, especially when the speaker belongs to a regional medium/background or resides completely in a native environment. But they need not learn grammar and are completely befooling themselves. It is exactly like shooting an arrow without a bow. Yes, you can hit an arrow perfectly sometimes, but for a perfect pace, you need a bow. Yes, of course, if you are growing up in a completely English environment or studying in a school where the native language is strictly restricted to speak, they learn naturally the things and subconsciously, they use to speak a sentence in a correct framing naturally as they have been provided with an environment under which they understand grammatically the sentence is correct.
With my own experience of teaching almost all kinds of board students, I have found, that students from completely native backgrounds based on their region or country, most of the time pass through the verb mistakes which leave often very awkward situation if they have not studied tenses properly. While students from completely English backgrounds pass through part of speech errors which can be actually, not always but often negligible.
So, speaking English in an incorrect framing of tense leaves a more awkward situation than mistakes in other parts of speeches.

Yes, students from English medium/backgrounds often argue that they have learned English without learning Tenses, they are actually true but they are unaware of the fact that they have learnt tenses subconsciously in a practical environment, still, they are not much confident with their grammar which may lead them in problem in future competitive examinations. ( If they are preparing for that )
And students from native background sometimes try to give examples of such students without understanding the fact that such students have got a practical environment.
So as far as I could understand from my own lifelong experience, different backgrounds students must learn English as per their needs and surrounding. If they belong to a non -English environment, they can learn English at the first step with the translation method with that they must continue their reading., then gradually they can acquire constant understanding by continuous writing and having a practical approach. While students from English speaking backgrounds must also understand if they are speaking any particular sentence correctly, and how the sentence is correct which will help them to understand graamr correctly .So dear good English speakers, please don’t leave excuses, for learning English there is no need of learning Tense. Don’t forget in writing your mistakes can never be ignored.

Yes, at the beginning level, you must not hesitate, you must try to speak but that doesn’t mean you need not learn and understand grammar. If you are leaning grammar with learning Spoken English, it’s all like honey on your sugar cube. You must go parallel if you wish to enhance your writing skill also. But all four skills , whether it’s reading or writing,speaking or listening , everything is needed for comprehending any language.

So for such kinds of learners, ultimately, I am presenting here my Grammar lessons with videos and notes accompanied with exercises. I am presenting here my life long learning of Grammar which could be very helpful for my students in learning the English Language not only in enhancing speaking skills but writing skills as well.

Hope you’ll like all the lessons prepared by me by my hard efforts, and try to leave your precious suggestions.

Thank You!

Happy Learning !

PEACE!

Topics to be covered:-

  • The complete explanation of each Grammar topic
  • Video Lectures
  • Exercises for practice after each topic
  • Quizzes

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