Reported Speech: DIRECT INDIRECT (Chapter- 2 & 3)If Reported Verb is in Present/Future Tense / Past Tense WITH EXERCISES: CBSE BASES REPORTED SPEECH

PART 1 : IF REPORTING VERB IS IN PRESENT TENSE

HOW TO CHANGE THE TENSE OF REPORTED SPEECH

a. If Reporting Verb is in Present / Future Tense, there will not be any kind of change of Tense in Reported Speech:

b. HOW TO CHANGE ‘say’ in PRESENT TENSE

PRESENT

Kind of Sentence        Reporting Verb      Reported Speech     Connector
Assertive  Say 
Says
Say to
Says to  
is saying
is saying to
has / have said
has / have said to
has /have been saying
has/ have been saying to

  say
says
tell
tells
is saying
is telling
has / have said
has / have told
has / have been saying
has/have been telling
    that
HOW TO CHANGE ‘SAY’ IN REPORTED SPEECH IN PRESENT TENSE

eg.

Sneha says to me,” Nitkita likes to play chess very well”

Sneha tells that Nikita likes to plat cricket.

Ritu has said , “ I have already won the match.”

Ritu has said that she has already won the match.

Deepak is saying , “ Nitin will come here today”

Deepak is saying that Nitin will go there that day.

FUTURE

HOW TO CHANGE ‘SAY’ IN FUTURE TENSE

    Kind of Sentence   Reporting Verb       Reported SpeechConnector
Assertive
Will say
Will say to
Will have said
Will have said to
Will/ shall have been saying
Will/shall have been saying to

Will say
Will tell
Will have said,
Will have told
Will/shall have been saying
Will / shall have been telling
that
Learn with video

Exercise 1

a. I say,” I will not attend the party tomorrow.”

b. Ankita says , ” They enjoyed the game.”

c. “I can’t beat you.” says Abhimanyu to Arjuna.

d. The teacher will say, ” These boys never complete their work.”

e. Ahana will be saying, ” I met with my best friend here Last year.”

f. Samridhi tells  Sukriti ,”Amrita will be playing chess at this time tomorrow.”

g. “If you can not assist me”, says Pushpendra to his friend ” I will not be able to listen

to you in future.”

PART 2: IF REPORTING VERB IS IN PAST TENSE

So if there is a Past Tense in Reporting verb ,the changes will

take place according to the list given below :-

Present Tense –   Past Tense

Past Tense –   Past Perfect

Past Perfect –    No Change

Past Perfect Continuous- No change

Will/Shall   – Would/ Should ( Be attentive of the Person)

Must –  Must / had to

Can –   could

May –   might

Would/could/should/ ought to

LEARN WIITH VIDEO: Start Timing 5:37

Should  might/ might have /  had to -No change

CHANGES IN DETAIL :

WITH EACH PART OF TENSE

REPORTING VERBREPORTED SPEECH
Simple PresentSimple Past
Present ContinuousPast Continuous
Present PerfectPast Perfect
Presnt Perfect ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous
PRESENT
REPORTING VERB REPORTED SPEECH
Simple PastPast Perfect
Past ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous
Past PerfectNo Change
Past Perfect ContinuosNo Change
PAST
REPORTING VERBREPORTED SPEECH
Will/shallWould/should
CanCould
MayMight
MustMust/ had to
Would/should/could/might/ /ought to /must have/ would have
could have/ should have / ought to have
No change
  HAPPY LEARNING ! 
FUTURE / MODALS

HOW TO CHANGE ‘SAY’ IN REPORTED SPEECH:-

   Kind of Sentence                  Reporting Verb              Reported Speech                 Connector
Assertive  Say  Says Say to Says to Said Said to Told  say says tell Tells ( reports / ) said told told (reported)     that

If Reported Speech is in

Present

Sheetal said  , “ Minakshi likes to fly kite.”

Sheetal said that Meenakshi liked to fly kite.

Akanksha said to Aditya , Minakshi is flying a kite”

Akanksha told Aditya that Minakshi was flying a kite.

Amit said to Anshu , “ Antima has finished her coffee.”

Amit told Anshu that Antima had finished her coffee.

If Reported Speech is in

Past  

Sheetal said  , “ Minakshi liked to fly kite.”

Sheetal said that Minakshi had liked to fly kite.

Akanksha said to Aditya , Minakshi was flying a kite”

Akanksha told Aditya that Minakshi had been flying a kite.

Amit said to Anshu , “ Antima had finished her coffee.”

Amit told Anshu that Antima had finished her coffee.

If Reported Speech is in

Future  

Sheetal said  , “ Minakshi will  fly a kite.”

Sheetal said that Minakshi would fly a kite.

Akanksha said to Aditya , Minakshi will be flying a kite”

Akanksha told Aditya that Minakshi would be flying a kite.

Amit said to Anshu , “ Antima will have finished her coffee.”

Amit told Anshu that Antima would have finished her coffee.

If Reported Speech is in

Modals

Sheetal said  , “ Minakshi will  fly a kite.”

Sheetal told that Minakshi would fly a kite.

Akanksha said to Aditya , Minakshi will be flying a kite”

Akanksha told Adiya that Minakshi would be  been flying a kite.

Amit said to Anshu , “ Antima will have finished her coffee.”

Amit told Anshu that Antima  would have finished her coffee.

CONDITION:- NO CHANGE OF TENSE IN REPORTED SPEECH

With Universal Truth / general or scientific facts / Habitual Sentence, we must never change the Tense of Reported Speech

The teacher said to the students , “ The sun itself is a star.”

The teacher told the students that the sun itself is a star.”

Arjun said  , “ The cat runs after the rat.”

Arjun said  that the cat runs after the rat.

Rahul said to Ankur, “ Avishka always comes late.”

Rahul to Ankur that Avishka always comes late.

Sukriti said to Sanskrti , “Amisha use to have walk early morning .”

Sukriti told Sanskriti that Amisha use to have a walk early morning.

Exercise 2

Please first solve the exercise then check the answers through the link given below.

  1. Richard said, “Julia is writing a letter.”
  2. Ananya said to me. “He swims very well.”
  3. The sage said,” God loves all .”
  4. “ Ananya has been writing a poem for last 2 hours”, said Disha to Nisha.
  5. The musician  said, “True music pours out from the hearts naturally.”
  6. Divya said, “ God saves those who save themselves.”
  7. He said, “ Angel has completed her work.”
  8. Ritvik said to me, I shall leave for  Vijayanagar soon.”
  9. “Cynthia is the Moon goddess according to Greek mythology.”, told the teacher to her students.
  10. “Nikita”said Ashu to Gazala, “had not met with her sister yet.”
11. Amita said,”

REPORTED SPEECH RULES: NARRATION: INDIRECT SPEECH (Chapter-1) Introduction: What is a Reported Speech / Narration?

DEFINITION

Reported Speech is a formation of a statement that we tell to someone, 

i.e. to the second person. 

 

Based on a conversation, the words of the speaker can be formed in two ways:-

DIRECT

INDIRECT

Or in simple words , we can say , two speeches came into existence 

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

 

Direct Speech

First, read the statement carefully-

The teacher said to the monitor, “ I will be on a leave tomorrow. So collect the notebooks from all the students today only for correction.”

(When the speaker is directly saying something to the listener or when we are repeating the words of the speaker to the third person, is called Direct Speech.)

Indirect Speech:

The teacher told the monitor that she would be on a leave the next day and ordered her to collect all the notebooks from the students that day only.

 

( Thus when the listener is repeating the words of the speaker to the third person in a roundabout manner, is called Indirect Speech. )

PARTS OF DIRECT SPEECH04

Now comes the formation of a Direct Speech-

There are two parts of a direct speech-

  • Reporting Verb

  • Reported Speech

  •  
READ THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT CAREFULLY

 

 

Ankit said to Ankita , “ Ridhima reads very well.”

 

(Reporting Verb)        (Reported Speech )

  • The part or clause that comes outside the inverted commas, is called Reporting Verb.
  • The part that is locked inside the inverted commas, is called Reported Speech.

*Remember

 

The position of the Reporting Verb and Reported Speech can be anywhere in the statement.

eg. 

 

Ankit said to Ankita , Ridhima is a very nice girl.”

Ridhima  said to Ankit to Ankita, “ is a very nice girl.”

 

“ Ridhima is a very nice girl.” Ankit said to Ankita.

 

All the lines in white  are Reporting verbs. That makes clear that it is not mandatory to have a reporting verb at the beginning of the sentence. Its position can be shifted according to the style of writing.

 

How to recognize a Direct and an Indirect Sentence :-

How to recognize a Direct Speech

  • The reported sentence is locked in the inverted commas.
    • Antima said , “Do you know Anuj ?”
  • After Reporting Verb, we put a comma.
    • Antima said, “Do you know  Anuj?”
  • The first letter of reported speech that is locked inside the inverted commas ,is  written in  capital letters.
    • Antima said , “Do you know  Anuj?”

How to recognize an Indirect Speech:-

 

  • The reported sentence is unlocked from the inverted commas.
    • Ritika said that she was her best friend.
  • Commas are replaced with conjunctions i.e. ( that/if /whether )according to the expression of the sentences.
    • Ritika said that she was her best friend.
  • Common  Rules of changing a Direct Speech into Indirect Speech:-
  • Inverted commas are removed in Reported speech
  • Commas are replaced with the conjunctions i.e. ( that/if /whether ) as per the expression of the sentences.
  • Never change the Tense of a Reporting Verb. Only the Tense of Reported Speech is changed if Reported Verb is in Past Tense.

Direct : Namita says to Nisha , “Mishti likes to play chess”

Indirect: Namita tells Nisha that Mishti likes to play chess. •

Direct: Danish said to Salman , “ I Visited Delhi last Monday”

Indirect : Danish told Salman that he had visited Delhi the previous Monday.

General Rules of Changing a Direct Speech:-

 

I. Common Changes:-applied in the complete Indirect Speech

II. Expression Changes:-  varies according to the different expressions

i.e. Kinds of sentences

They are again sub divided in the following parts-

I . Common Changes – applied in the complete Indirect Speech

a. Change of Tense

b. Change of Pronoun

c. Change of Time and place

Read and understand the following sentences and the chart before going further in the detailed study of Change of Tense, Pronoun or Time and Space-

How to change Say / said of Reporting Verb 

according to different kinds of sentences :-

 

 

Sentence Reporting Verb     Reported Speech Connector
Assertive   Say 
Says
Say to
Says to
Said
Said to
Told 
  say
says
tell
tells
said to
told
( reports / reported) 
    that
Interrogative Say /Says / Say to/ Says to / Said/Said to   Told      asked/ enquired of     If / whether
Imperative Request   Order     Advice    requested ordered /commanded advised       Connector {to}  
  Proposal   Making proposal  proposed to / suggested to   
                   Exclamatory Sorrow   Happiness Surprise Exclaimed with sorrow   Exclaimed with joy/happiness   Exclaimed with surprise   that  
 Optative Wish Curse wished/blessed cursed     that (In some cases without connectors)
HOW TO CHANGE SAY /SAID

 

DIRECT TO INDIRECT

Examples:

Ankita says, ” Harsh is my brother.

Ankita tells that Harsh is her brother.

 

Shikha says to Nisha, ” Ridhima studies with me. “

 

Shikha tells Nisha that Ridhima studies with her.

 

Akhil said to Nilesh , “ I can not come to meet you here tomorrow.”

Akhil told Nitesh that he could not go to meet him there the next day.

 

Namita said to me , ” Anubhav has been working hard since last night.”

 

Namita told me that Anubhav had been working hard since last night.

 

Nitin said me , ” Will you also go to Goa?”

Nitin asked me if I would also go to Goa.

 

Rishika said to me , ” Do you have my book?”

Rishika enquired of me if I had her book.

 

Dinesh said to Mayank, ” Return me my bike.”

Dinesh ordered Mayank to return his bike.

 

Simran said to me , ” Please, help me in completing my project.”

 

Simran requested me to help her in competing her project.

 

Siya said me, ” Have a deep sleep for 6 hours a day.

Siya advised me to have a deep sleep for 6 hours a day.

 

Babita said to me,” Let’s play tennis.”

Babita proposed to me that we should play tennis.

 

Akriti said to Divyani, ” Let’s participate in the quiz. “

Akriti suggested to Divyani that we must participate in the quiz.

 

Gargi said, “Hurrah ! I have won a trophy.”

Gargi exclaimed with joy that she had won a trophy.

 

Shivani said to me ,” Alas! I have met with an accident.”

Shivani exclaimed me with sorrow that she had met with an accident.

 

Aditi said , ” What a beautiful flower it is !”

Aditi exclaimed with surprise that it was a beautiful flower.

 

Garvit said, “May God bless you !”

Garvit wished that God might bless me.

 

Vikram said to his friends, ” May you go to hell !”

Vikram cursed his friend that he might go to hell.

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