## Chapter 3 USE TO TO BE ( IS ARE AM )

With the study point of view, I have categorized this part in 5 sections –

I. Simple Present Tense ( without the use of main verb)

1. Use of ‘to be’ in present
2. Use of  ‘have’

II. Use of Dummy Subject

a .There

b.  It

III. Main Indefinite form of the verb.

I. Simple Present Tense ( without the use of main verb)

Use of ‘to be’ in present

( In Simple Present ‘to be’ means – is/are/am-

Use of  is, are, and am shows the present state/condition of our subject.

Example- This is a chair.

The weather is fine.

He is a doctor.

(to be) is, are, am.

How to use is, are, am in a sentence,

Singular- Is

Plural- Are

First person- (I) – Am

Structure of Affirmative Sentence-

Subject+ is, are, am+ complement

Example- Ravita is a lawyer

You are Happy.

I am a teacher.

Structure of Negative Sentence-

Subject+ is, are, am + not + complement

Example- Shivangi is not happy today.

You are not a thief.

Structure of Interrogative Sentences-

Type-1

Is, are am, + subject+ complement

Are they players?

Type-2

Structure of Interrogative Sentence-

W family word + is, are, am+  subject+ complement

Type 3

How/much/how many/ Whose/which+ Related Noun+ is/are/am _ Subject +Complement

Example- Whose bag is

this on the chair?

How many girls

are there in the kitchen ?

Which book is yours ?

Interrogative Negative

The structures of all kinds of Interrogative is almost same .

We only need to add NOT after the Subject

…….. is/are/am+ subject + not —–

Example- Is Rajeev not a monitor?

Why are you not happy?

Whose watch is not this ?

## KINDS OF AUXILIARY VERBS

There are 2 kinds of Auxiliary Verbs

1. Primary Auxiliary Verb

2. Modal Auxiliary Verb

There are 3 type of Primary Auxiliary Verb.

1.Be,

2. Have

3. Do

1. Be- Is, Are, Am, Was, Were, Been Being.

2. Has- Has, Have, Had, Will have, Shall have.

3. Do- Do, Does, Did,

Remember

Main verb is never affected by modal auxiliary verb.

Example- He can do his work by himself.

He could do his work by himself.

He must do his work by himself.

While Root verb is always affected by its Primary Auxiliary Verbs.

## Check How Much You Have Learnt

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#### 7. Past of ‘ have ‘

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Auxiliary Verbs
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## Quiz Class X CHAPTER & AUTHORS’ NAME

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CHAPTERS & AUTHORS' NAME CLASS X-
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## QUIZ: THE TRIUMPH OF SURGERY

Answer quiz 1 within 30 seconds /question

QUIZ 1 -IDIOM PHRASES AND VOCABULARY OF THE CHAPTER

START QUIZ

QUIZ 2 – PARAGRAPH BASED QUESTIONS

“Oh, I did for a bit, but he seemed to be so weak I had to relent. He
does love cream cakes and chocolates so. I can’t bear to refuse him.”
I looked down again at the little dog. That was the trouble. Tricki’s
only fault was greed. He had never been known to refuse food; he
would tackle a meal at any hour of the day or night. And I wondered
.

#### 1. Who speaks the first line?........................... (a) Mrs. Pumphrey (b) Doctor

(a) Mrs. Pumphrey (b) Doctor
Click to Flip
1
Mrs. Pumphrey

#### 2. Name of the dog ?......................... a. Trisca b) Tricky

a. Trisca b) Tricky
Click to Flip
1

#### 3. Meaning of the expression " I had to be relent."............................ a) I had to be hard b) I had to be soft

1
a) I had to be hard b) I had to be soft
Click to Flip
1

#### 4. "He had never been known to refuse food" Who was actually responsible for the dog's such condition?..... a. Mrs. Pumphrey b. Tricky himself

a. Mrs. Pumphrey b. Tricky himself
Click to Flip
Mrs. Pumphrey

#### 5. 'to tackle a meal ' means?................. a. ) never to refuse the food b) always refuse the food

a. ) never to refuse food b) always refuse the food
Click to Flip
1
a) never to refuse food

Share:

## TENSE: CHAPTER 1(B) VERB PERSON CASES

Before proceeding ahead , we must understand the another basic important Key points without which the lesson of Tense is absolutely incomplete.

1. Verb

2. Person

3. Cases

I. VERB

As in the earlier chapter we studied about the placement of a verb

in a sentence, So it’s important to understand its forms also which are the root

reason to understand. Because

Basically there are three forms of the verb:

1. Present  (Base Form

2. Past

3. Past Participle

But with view of understanding Tenses in a better way,

Grammarians have divided them in five parts:

4. Present Participle (V+ing)

5. Third person singular form of the verb- Verb +s/ es / ies

II. CASES

There are total 4 kinds of cases:-

1. Nominative subjective
2. Possessive
3. Objective
4. Reflexive
III. PERSON

A ‘ person ‘ also plays an important roll in the

formation of a sentence as it is the person in the form of subject – that decides the correct use of verb.

Total number of persons are three. Here is the list:-

Test

Name
EMAIL

## QUIZ GRAMMAR BUDS

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#### j. Don’t make ____hurry.

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A/AN
I will win one day* Let's try again
HERO*** Let's try again to be a SUPER HERO
SUPER HERO*****

## TENSE : ORIGIN & MEANING OF THE WORD

Origin of the Word

Definition of Tense

Classification of Tense

Basic Roots of Tenses

Origin of the word Tense

The word ‘ TENSE’ was originally derived from Latin word TENDERE . The meaning of which was TIME .  Then with the passage of the time , the form of the word had been changed and was called as TENSUS . Then again it was transformed as TENS when it was adopted by French Language. It also means Time Finally Middle English adopted the same and gave it a present form as TENSE-meaning as time.

Latin-Tendere -Tensus- Time

French- Tens- Time

Middle English- Tense- Time

Definition of Tense-

“Tense is that form of a verb which not only shows the time of

an action but also the state of any action.”

Classification of Tense-

1. Present Tense
2. Past Tense
3. Future Tense

Each Tense has 4 types-

1. Indefinite
2. Continuous
3. Perfect
4. Perfect Continuous

Root Process of Learning Tenses-

1. Structure
2. Form of the verb,
3. Person

For the proper formation of this structure , we need to understand its each component separately

Root Structure of a Tense-

Affirmative:- Subject+(to be)Verb + object/Complementary

Negative:- Subject + Auxiliary verb + Verb( if any) + Object

Interrogative:- Auxiliary verb + Subject+ Verb + Object/ Complementary

Three basic components of structure of the Tenses:-

SUBJECT

VERB

OBJECT

What is a subject ?

Subject is also called ( a Doer)

If we say in a simple language “Any person, place, thing, or feeling around whom/  which the whole sentence,  revolves is called subject.”

Or

“Any person, place, thing, or feeling which whom we are talking or indicating about in our sentence is called Subject.”

Or

“Any person, place, thing, or feeling which whom we are talking about in our sentence is called Subject.”

Example-

1. Akash flies a kite
2. The kite is soaring in the sky

What is a Verb?

“A verb is not  only the action but also a state occurrence or a mental condition that is shown or done by our subject.”

Example-

1. Akash flies a kite . ( Action)
2. The kite is flying in the sky. (state)

Kite can’t perform any action by itself. So the state of the kite has been shown here.

1. He became a doctor last year. ( occurrence )
2. You look happy today. / She seems upset today . ( Mental State )

What is an object?

An object is a word upon which either the action is performed by our subject or it gets  affected by the subject of the sentence anyhow.

Example-

1. Akash flies a kite
2. Akriti seems very happy today.

## HOW TO WRITE A CHARACTER SKETCH

SKETCH THE CHARACTER:

## KEY FEATURES

Before you Write

• Prepare a rough draft.
• Write Key Features of the Character
• Then finally write in 2 to 3 paragraphs according to the given word limit

1. Kind of Character :-

• Historical Character
• Imaginative Protagonist
• Positive
• Negative

2. How to Start:-

• Try to start with quote / famous saying relatable to the character.

Example:-

• For the Character Sketch of Gautam Buddha:-

“ A great tree grows from two soft leaves to spread its shade after.”

Righly writes Edwin Arnold in his book ‘Light of Asia’

for Gutam Buddha an apostle whose sacrifices

can never be forgotten. Gautam Buddha was born……

###### THE BEST FRAMMAR BOOK

3. Name of Chapter and Writer

Try to mention the name of the author of the chapter from where the

character has been taken.

You can also mention the character is the leading one or the secondary one

5. Basic traits of the character

Divide them in Positive and Negative

•  Positive,

Honest

Innocent

Kind hearted

Negative

jealous

depressed

revengeful

Note: Don’t write charcter in points /headings.

Write only in Paragraph

f.  Connect your line with the dialogue

Example:

The Bus conductor was really an amusing personality. He would always cut jokes to make the passengers laugh and create the atmosphere light. When Vali insists not to call her a child, he begins to call

7. Why you like/dislike that character

8. What your leant from that charcter

## SAMPLE

Character Sketch of Gutam Buddha

“A great tree grows from two soft leaves to spread its shade after.”

Righly writes Edwin Arnold in his book ‘Light of Asia’  for Gautam buddha an apostle whose sacrifices can never be forgotten. Gautam Buddha was born 563B.C. in a royal family of northern India but was less fortunate , He couldn’t

enjoy his prince hood more than twenty years.

very sensitive by nature, he renounced the world of luxury coming across human suffering, sickness, old age and death. His strong will power couldn’t shake him to leave his princely life and family which he loved a lot . He attained enlightenment after undergoing a long period of renunciation and hardships. He wandered for seven long years and finally sat down under  a peepal tree  in mediation and finally came to be known as the Buddha.

He was a selfless soul who shared even his wisdom and enightment to eliminate human sufferings.

He had a deep psychological insight. He  handled Kisa Gotami’s  grief not only by uttering words of wisdom, but by making her realise the reality of birth and death by letting her experience  personally.

When he asked her for mustard seeds, he added , “ The musturard seed must be taken from a house where no one has lost a child husband, parent or friend.”

Thus the life of Gautam Buddha teaches us how to recognize – ‘self ’ & never hesitate to leave our weaknesses and worldly pleasures on the path of human services.

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