REPORTED SPEECH:(Part-4): HOW TO CHANGE THE PERSON /ADVERB OF TIME

Before learning how to change the person of a Reported Speech ,

try to understand the following chart:-

PERSONS & CASES OF A PRONOUN

A Pronoun has 3 persons & 4 cases :-

PersonNominative Case
(Subject)  
Objective
Case
(Object)
Possessive
Case
Reflexive
Case
I    I WeMe UsMy OurMyself / Ourselves
IIYouYouYourYourself/ Yourselves
IIIHe She It TheyHim Her It ThemHis Her Its TheirHimself Herself Itself Themselves
CASES OF PERSON

1. If there is any First Person irrespective of the cases in Reported Speech,it will be changed according to the Person, Number and Gender of the  SUBJECT of the Reporting Verb

Example

DIRECT: Kirti said to me, “I can do my work myself.”

INDIRECT: Kirti told me that she could do her work herself

DIRECT: Aman said to Disha , “ I can do my work myself. ”

INDIRECT: Aman told me that he could do his work himself

1. If there is any First Person in Reported Speech ,it will be changed

      according to the Person, Number and Gender of the  SUBJECT of

      the Reporting Verb

Example

DIRECR: The boys said , “ we can do our work ourselves.”

INDIRECT: The boys said that they could their work themselves.

Exception  

DIRECT: Avni said to Disha , “ We are going to play soon.”

INDIRECT: Avni told Disha that they were going to play soon.

2. ( a) If there is any Second  Person irrespective of the cases in Reported Speech ,

it will be changed according to the Person, Number and Gender

of the OBJECT of  the Reporting Verb

Example:-

DIRECT: Kirti said to me, “You can do your work Yourself.”

INDIRECT: Kirti told me that I could do my work myself.

DIRECT: Aman said to his friends , “You can do our work ourselves.”

INDIRECT: Aman told  his friends that they could do their work themselves.

2.(b)If there is any Second  Person irrespective of the cases in Reported Speech ,

it will be changed according to the Person, Number and Gender

of the OBJECT of  the Reporting Verb

but if you find no object in Reported Speech , you have to the change it according to the 1st /3rd person ( that would be in hidden form) in Reporting Verb i.e. we have to assume it either 1st person /3rd person ,Singular/plural with the clear reading and understanding the Reporting Verb

Eg.

DIRECT: Garima said , “ You are very nice. ”

(Assume Object as FIRST / THIRD PERSON)

INDIRECT: Garima said that I was very nice

or

INDIRECT: Garima said that she was very nice.

or

INDIRECT: Garima said that  he was very nice.

or

INDIRECT: Garima said that they were very nice.

Eg.

DIRECT: Garima said , “ You are a  very nice girl.”

DIRECT: Garima said that she was very nice.

DIRECT: Garima said , “ You are a  very nice boy.”

INDIRECT: Garima said that  he was a very nice boy.

DIRECT: Garima said , “ You are very nice girls.”

INDIRECT: Garima told that they were very nice girls.”

3..If there is any Third Person in Reported Speech ,

   there will not be any kind of change in Person, Number or Gender

 of Reported Speech- (NO CHANGE)

Absence of Object in Reporting Verb

Example:-

DIRECT: Garima said to me , “ She can do her work herself.”

INDIRECT: Garima told me that she could do her work herself.

DIRECT: Garima said said to him, “ He can do his work himself.

INDIRECT: Garima told him that  he could do his work himself.

DIRECT: Garima said , “ They can do their work themselves.”

INDIRECT: Garima said that they could do their work themselves.

Exercise 3

(How to change Person)

  1. He said to me, “ I have finished my work.”
  2. Shikha said to Sunita, “ You must not hurt yourself.”
  3. Garima said to Gita,“ She enjoyed her holidays well.”
  4. Divyansh said, “You are honest.”
  5. Divya said,“She must not waste her time.
  6. Deepak said to me, “ You should meet me tomorrow.”
  7. He said to me, “ I will return your notes tomorrow.”
  8. The teacher said “ You always come to late , Bhawna.”
  9. Deeksha said to me, “ You did not wait for me yesterday.”
  10. Akriti said to Rachna, “I can not talk to you anymore.”

ADVERB OF TIME

In Reported Speech nearness of time and position

are changed in the distance of time or position

REPORTING VERBREPORTED SPEECH
AgoBefore
ComeGo
HenceThence
Hither Thither
NowThen
HereThere
This That
TheseThose
Thusso
TonightThat night
TodayThat day
TomorrowThe next day
The following day
Yesterday The previous day
The day before
Last Previous
HOW TO CHANGE ADVERB

Exercise: How to change Person and Adverb

I. He said to me ,” He is a good reader. “

He told me that _________

a. he was a good reader

b. he had been a good reader.

c. he is a good reader.

Ans. a

2. Drishti says, ” My brother is very bright. “

Dristi says that _____ was very bright.

a. her brother

b. my brother

c. your brother

Ans. a

3. Jennie said to me, ” You must pay attention on your studies now.”

Jennie told me that ______pay attention on _____studies___.”

a. she must – her- ago

b. we must – our- now

c. I must – my – then

Ans. c.

4. The boys said,” We will follow our leader tonight.”

The boys said that _____ would follow ____ leader.

a. they -their- that night

b. we – our- tonight

c. he -his- no change

Ans. a

5. Prakriti says to me her younger sister, “I will return after the sunset.

Prakriti informs her sister that ____ return after the sun set.

a. I would

b. she would

c. he would

Ans. b

6. Ritvik said , ” I could not deliver my lecture yesterday. “

Ritivik said that ____ could not deliver _____ lecture ______.

a. I – my – yesterday

b. he-his-the previous day

c. She- her- the previous day

Ans. b.

7 . Goldy says to Nisha , ” We’ll do it tomorrow.

Goldy tells Nisha that they would do it _____.

a. The next day

b, The previous day

c. tomorrow.

Ans. a

8. Akriti said to Sumit,” Nikhil had come here in school yesterday.”

Ankrit reported Sumit that Nikhil had ___ _ ___in school ___.

a. Gone- there- the previous day

b. Come – here -yesterday

c. Gone – there the following day

Ans. a.

Reported Speech(Part 2 & 3)If Reported Verb is in Present/Future Tense / Past Tense WITH EXERCISES: CBSE BASES REPORTED SPEECH

HOW TO CHANGE THE TENSE OF REPORTED SPEECH

1. HOW TO CHANGE ‘say’ in PRESENT TENSE

PRESENT

Kind of Sentence        Reporting Verb      Reported Speech     Connector
Assertive  Say 
Says
Say to
Says to  
is saying
is saying to
has / have said
has / have said to
has /have been saying
has/ have been saying to

  say
says
tell
tells
is saying
is telling
has / have said
has / have told
has / have been saying
has/have been telling
    that
HOW TO CHANGE ‘SAY’ IN REPORTED SPEECH IN PRESENT TENSE

Sneha says to me,” Nitkita likes to play chess very well”

Sneha tells that Nikita likes to plat cricket.

Ritu has said , “ I have already won the match.”

Ritu has said that she has already won the match.

Deepak is saying , “ Nitin will come here today”

Deepak is saying that Nitin will go there that day.

FUTURE

HOW TO CHANGE ‘SAY’ IN FUTURE TENSE

    Kind of Sentence   Reporting Verb       Reported SpeechConnector
Assertive
Will say
Will say to
Will have said
Will have said to
Will/ shall have been saying
Will/shall have been saying to

Will say
Will tell
Will have said,
Will have told
Will/shall have been saying
Will / shall have been telling
that
Learn with video HOW TO CHANGE THE TENSE OF REPORTED SPEECH

HOW TO CHANGE THE TENSE OF REPORTED SPEECH

PART 1 : IF REPORTING VERB IS IN PRESENT FUTURE TENSE

1. If Reporting Verb is in Present / Future Tense in Direct speech , there will not be any kind of change of Tense in Reported Speech:

eg.

Sneha says to me,” Nitkita likes to play chess very well”

Sneha tells that Nikita likes to plat cricket.

Ritu has said , “ I have already won the match.”

Ritu has said that she has already won the match.

Deepak is saying , “ Nitin will come here today”

Deepak is saying that Nitin will go there that day.

Deepika will say, ” Nikhil will be present tomorrow.”

Deepak will say that Nikhil would be present the next day.

Exercise 1

Please first solve the exercise then check the answers through the link given below.

a. I Radha says ,” Tapan is a nice boy.”

b. Ankita says , ” They enjoyed the game.”

c. “I can’t beat you.” says Abhimanyu to Arjuna.

d. The teacher will say, ” These boys never complete their work.”

e. Ahana will be saying, ” I met with my best friend here Last year.”

f. Samridhi tells  Sukriti ,”Amrita will be playing chess at this time tomorrow.”

g. “If you can not assist me”, says Pushpendra to his friend ” I will not be able to listen

to you in future.”

PART 2: IF REPORTING VERB IS IN PAST TENSE

So if there is a Past Tense in Reporting verb in Direct Speech ,the changes in Reported Speech will take place according to the list given below :-

Direct Speech – Indirect Speech

Present Tense –   Past Tense

Past Tense –   Past Perfect

Past Perfect –    No Change

Past Perfect Continuous- No change

Will/Shall   – Would/ Should ( Be attentive of the Person)

Must –  Must / had to

Can –   could

May –   might

Would/could/should/ ought to

LEARN WIITH VIDEO: Start Timing 5:37

Should might/ might have/had to –

No change

CHANGES IN DETAIL :

WITH EACH PART OF TENSE

DIRECT SPEECHINDIRECT SPEECH
Simple PresentSimple Past
Present ContinuousPast Continuous
Present PerfectPast Perfect
Presnt Perfect ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous
PRESENT
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH
Simple PastPast Perfect
Past ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous
Past PerfectNo Change
Past Perfect ContinuosNo Change
PAST
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH
Will/shallWould/should
CanCould
MayMight
MustMust/ had to
Would/should/could/might/ /ought to /must have/ would have
could have/ should have / ought to have
No change
  HAPPY LEARNING! 
FUTURE / MODALS

HOW TO CHANGE ‘SAY’ IN REPORTED SPEECH:-

   Kind of Sentence                  Reporting Verb              Reported Speech Connector
Assertive  Say  Says Say to Says to Said Said to Told  say says tell Tells ( reports / ) said told told (reported)     that

EXAMPLES:

If Reported Speech is in

Present

Sheetal said  , “ Minakshi likes to fly kite.”

Sheetal said that Meenakshi liked to fly kite.

Akanksha said to Aditya , Minakshi is flying a kite”

Akanksha told Aditya that Minakshi was flying a kite.

Amit said to Anshu , “ Antima has finished her coffee.”

Amit told Anshu that Antima had finished her coffee.

If Reported Speech is in

Past  

Sheetal said  , “ Minakshi liked to fly kite.”

Sheetal said that Minakshi had liked to fly kite.

Akanksha said to Aditya , Minakshi was flying a kite”

Akanksha told Aditya that Minakshi had been flying a kite.

Amit said to Anshu , “ Antima had finished her coffee.”

Amit told Anshu that Antima had finished her coffee.

If Reported Speech is in

Future  

Sheetal said  , “ Minakshi will  fly a kite.”

Sheetal said that Minakshi would fly a kite.

Akanksha said to Aditya , Minakshi will be flying a kite”

Akanksha told Aditya that Minakshi would be flying a kite.

Amit said to Anshu , “ Antima will have finished her coffee.”

Amit told Anshu that Antima would have finished her coffee.

If Reported Speech is in

HOW TO CHANGE MODALS

DIRECT SPEECHINDIRECT SPEECH
Will/shallWould/should
CanCould
MayMight
MustMust/ had to
Would/should/could/might/ /ought to /must have/ would have
could have/ should have / ought to have
No change
   
FUTURE / MODALS

Examples:

Nikita said to me, ” I can not help you right now.”

Nikita told me that she could not help me right then .

Swati said , “I would like to have coffee. “

Swati said that that she would like to have coffee.

UNIVERSAL TRUTH SCIENTIFIC FACTS / HABITUAL SENTENCES

With universal truth/ general or scientific facts/ habitual sentences,

we must never change the Tense of Reported Speech

The teacher said to the students , “ The sun itself is a star.”

The teacher told the students that the sun itself is a star.”

Arjun said  , “ The cat runs after the rat.”

Arjun said  that the cat runs after the rat.

Rahul said to Ankur, “ Avishka always comes late.”

Rahul to Ankur that Avishka always comes late.

Sukriti said to Sanskrti , “Amisha use to have walk early morning .”

Sukriti told Sanskriti that Amisha use to have a walk early morning.

Exercise 2

Please first solve the exercise then check the answers through the link given below.

  1. Richard said, “Julia is writing a letter.”
  2. Ananya said to me. “He swims very well.”
  3. The sage said,” God loves all .”
  4. “ Ananya has been writing a poem since the last 2 hours”, said Disha to Nisha.
  5. The musician  said, “True music pours out from the hearts naturally.”
  6. Divya said, “ God saves those who save themselves.”
  7. He said, “ Angel has completed her work.”
  8. Ritvik said to me, I shall leave for  Vijayanagar soon.”
  9. “Cynthia is the Moon goddess according to Greek mythology.”, told the teacher to her students.
  10. “Nikita,”said Ashu to Gazala, “had not met with her sister yet.”

REPORTED SPEECH RULES: NARRATION: INDIRECT SPEECH (Part1): Introduction: What is a Reported Speech / Narration?

DEFINITION

Reported Speech is a formation of a sentence that we tell to someone, i.e.to the second person.

Thus based on a conversation, the words of the speaker can be formed in two ways:-

DIRECT

INDIRECT

LEARN WITH VIDEO

Thus two kinds of speeches came into existence

Direct Speech:

The teacher said to the monitor, “ I will be on a leave tomorrow. So collect the notebooks from all the students today only for correction.”

(When the speaker is directly saying something to the listener or when we are repeating the words of the speaker to the third person, is called Direct Speech.)

Indirect Speech:

The teacher told the monitor that she would be on a leave the next day and ordered her to collect all the notebooks from the students that day only.

( Thus when the listener is repeating the words of the speaker to the third person in roundabout a manner ,is called Indirect Speech. )

Parts of Direct Speech:-

Now comes the formation of a Direct Speech-

 There are two parts of a Direct Speech: –

  • Reporting Verb
  • Reported Speech

Ankit said to Ankita , “ Ridhima reads very well.”

(Reporting Verb)     (Reported Speech )

The part or clause that comes outside of the inverted commas ,is called Reporting Verb. The part that is locked inside the inverted commas, is called Reported Speech.

*Remember

The position of the Reporting verb & Reported Speech can be anywhere in the sentence :-

eg.   Ankit said to Ankita , “ Ridhima is a very nice girl.”

“Ridhima” said Ankit to Ankita, “ is a very nice girl.”

“ Ridhima is a very nice girl.” Ankit said to Ankita .

All the lines in green are Reporting verbs. That makes clear that it is not mandatory to have a reporting verb at the beginning of the sentence. Its position can be shifted according to the style of writing.

How to recognize a Direct and an Indirect Sentence :-

How to Recognize a Direct Speech:-

  • The reported sentence is locked in the inverted commas.
    • Antima said , “Do you know  Anuj?”
  • After Reporting Verb, we put a comma. 
    • Antima said , “Do you know  Anuj?”
  • The first letter of reported speech that is locked inside the inverted commas ,is  written in  capital letters.
    • Antima said , “Do you know  Anuj?”
How to Recognize an Indirect Speech:-
  • The reported sentence is unlocked from the inverted commas.
    • Ritika said that she was her best friend.
  • Commas are replaced with the conjunctions i.e. ( that/if /whether )according to the expression of the sentences. 
    • Ritika said that she was her best friend.

Common  Rules of changing a Direct Speech into Indirect Speech:-

  • Inverted commas are removed in Reported speech
  • Commas are replaced with conjunctions i.e. ( that/if /whether ) as per the expression of the sentences.
  • Never change the Tense of a Reporting Verb. Only the Tense of Reported Speech is changed if Reported Verb is Past Tense.

eg.

Direct : Namita says to Nisha , “Mishti likes to play chess”

Indirect: Namita tells Nisha that Mishti likes to play chess. •

Direct: Danish said to Salman , “ I Visited Delhi last Monday”

Indirect : Danish told Salman that he had visited Delhi the previous Monday.

General rules of changing a Direct Speech into Indirect Speech:-

I. Common Changes – applied in the complete Indirect Speech

II . Expression Changes – varies according to the different expressions

i.e. Kinds of sentences

They are again sub divided in the following parts-

I . Common Changes – applied in the complete Indirect Speech

a.Change of Tense

b. Change of Pronoun

c. Change of Time and place •

Read and understand the following sentences and the chart before going further in the detailed study of Change of Tense , Pronoun or Time and Space-

How to change Say / said of Reporting Verb according to different kinds

of sentences :-

Sentence Reporting Verb     Reported SpeechConnector
Assertive   Say 
Says
Say to
Says to
Said
Said to
Told 
  say
says
tell
tells
said to
told
( reports / reported) 
    that
InterrogativeSay /Says / Say to/ Says to / Said/Said to   Told     asked/ enquired of    If / whether
ImperativeRequest   Order     Advice   requested ordered /commanded advised      Connector {to}  
  Proposal  Making proposal proposed to / suggested to   
                   ExclamatorySorrow   Happiness SurpriseExclaimed with sorrow   Exclaimed with joy/happiness   Exclaimed with surprise   that  
 OptativeWish Cursewished/blessed cursed    that (In some cases without connectors)
HOW TO CHANGE SAY /SAID

Examples:

Direct

Ankita says, ” Harsh is my brother.

Shikha says to Nisha, ” Ridhima studies with me. “

Akhil said , “ I can not come to meet you here tomorrow.”

Namita said to me , ” Anubhav has been working hard since last night.”

Nitin said me , ” Will you also go to Goa?”

Rishika said to me , ” Do you have my book?”

Dinesh said to Mayank, ” Return me my bike.”

Simran said to me , ” Please, help me in completing my project.”

Siya said me , ” Have a deep sleep for 6 hours a day.

Babita said to me,” Let’s play tennis.”

Akriti said to Divyani , ” Let’s participate in the quiz. “

Gargi said, “Hurrah ! I have won a trophy.”

Shivani said to me ,” Alas! I have met with an accident.”

Aditi said , ” What a beautiful flower it is !”

Garvit said, “May God bless you !”

Vikram said to his friends , ” May you go to hell !”

Indirect

Ankita tells that Harsh is her brother.

Akhil told Nitesh that he could not go to meet him there the next day.

Shikha tells Nisha that Ridhima studies with her.

Akhil said that he could not meet him there the previous day.

Namita told me that Anubhav had been working hard since last night.

Nitin asked me if I would also go to Goa.

Rishika enquired of me if I had her book.

Dinesh ordered Mayank to return his bike.

Simran requested me to help her in competing her project.

Siya adviced me to have a deep sleep for 6 hours a day.

Babita proposed to me that we should play tennis.

Akriti suggested to Divyani that we must participate in the quiz.

Gargi exclaimed with joy that she had won a trophy.

Shivani exclaimed me with sorrow that she had met with an accident.

Aditi exclaimed with surprise that it was a beautiful flower.

Garvit wished that God might bless me.

Vikram cursed his friend that he might go to hell.

Words before you start !

Welcome Learners !

Greetings!

I’m Meena Bilandani, M.A. (English)+Bachelor of Education, pursuing my passion of teaching for more than 15 years. I spend most of my time with my students and with my never-ending learning over here world’s most

spiritual land INDIA..

MEENA KUMARI

Let’s begin a new journey!

Grammar learning is not an easy task. It is a tough row to hoe. A lot of practice with constant learning then assimilating within is really a constant journey in itself that needs immense patience to carry on. Speaking and writing any language within a proper framing in a restricted structure, is really an art.

“ Grammar in spoken English is not needed ”, is only a prevalent myth. Yes, for beginners just to encourage them we say not to stick with a heavy set of burden and keep on speaking, especially when the speaker belongs to a regional medium or residing completely in a native environment. But they need not learn grammar, is completely be fooling themselves.

It is exactly like shooting an arrow without a bow. Yes, you can hit an arrow perfectly sometimes, but for a perfect pace ,you need a bow. Yes, of course, if you are growing up under a completely English environment or studying in a school where the native language is strictly restricted to speak,. They learn naturally the things and subconsciously, they use to speak a sentence in a correct framing naturally as they have been provided an environment under which they understand grammatically the sentence is correct .


With my own experience of teaching almost all kinds of board students, I have found, students from completely native background, most of the times pass through the verb mistakes which leave often very awkward situation if they have not studied tenses properly. While students of completely English Medium background pass through part of speech errors which can be actually, not always but often negligible.


So, speaking English in an incorrect framing of tense leaves more awkward situation than misuses of other parts of speeches.

Yes, students from English Medium often argue that they have learned English without learning Tenses, they are actually true but they are unaware of the fact that they have learnt tenses automatically with a practical environment still they are not much confident with their grammar which may lead them in problem in future competitive examinations.
And students from native background sometimes try to give examples of such students without understanding the fact that they have got a practical environment.

So as far as I could understand with my own lifelong experience, they can learn English at the first step with the translation method only, then gradually they can acquire constant understanding by continuous writing and having a practical approach. So native speakers, please don’t leave excuses, for learning English there is no need of learning Tense.

Yes, at the beginning level, you must not hesitate, you must try to speak but that doesn’t mean you need not learn and understand grammar. If you are learning grammar with learning Spoken English, it’s all like honey on your sugar cube. You must go parallel if you wish to enhance your writing skill also. But all four skills , whether it’s reading or writing,speaking or listening , everything is needed for comprehending any language.

So for such kinds of learners . ultimately, I am presenting here my Grammar lessons with videos and notes accompanied with exercises. I am presenting here my life long learning of Grammar which could be very helpful for my students in learning the English Language not only in enhancing speaking skills but writing skills as well.

Hope you’ll like all the lessons prepared by me by my hard efforts, and try to leave your precious suggestions.

Thank You !

Happy Learning !

 

Topics to be covered:-

  • The complete explanation of each Grammar topic
  • Video Lectures
  • Exercises for practice after each topic
  • Quizzes

 

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