REPORTED SPEECH RULES: NARRATION: INDIRECT SPEECH (Part1): Introduction: What is a Reported Speech / Narration?

DEFINITION

Reported Speech is a formation of a sentence that we tell to someone, i.e.to the second person.

Thus based on a conversation, the words of the speaker can be formed in two ways:-

DIRECT

INDIRECT

LEARN WITH VIDEO

Thus two kinds of speeches came into existence

Direct Speech:

The teacher said to the monitor, “ I will be on a leave tomorrow. So collect the notebooks from all the students today only for correction.”

(When the speaker is directly saying something to the listener or when we are repeating the words of the speaker to the third person, is called Direct Speech.)

Indirect Speech:

The teacher told the monitor that she would be on a leave the next day and ordered her to collect all the notebooks from the students that day only.

( Thus when the listener is repeating the words of the speaker to the third person in roundabout a manner ,is called Indirect Speech. )

Parts of Direct Speech:-

Now comes the formation of a Direct Speech-

 There are two parts of a Direct Speech: –

  • Reporting Verb
  • Reported Speech

Ankit said to Ankita , “ Ridhima reads very well.”

(Reporting Verb)     (Reported Speech )

The part or clause that comes outside of the inverted commas ,is called Reporting Verb. The part that is locked inside the inverted commas, is called Reported Speech.

*Remember

The position of the Reporting verb & Reported Speech can be anywhere in the sentence :-

eg.   Ankit said to Ankita , “ Ridhima is a very nice girl.”

“Ridhima” said Ankit to Ankita, “ is a very nice girl.”

“ Ridhima is a very nice girl.” Ankit said to Ankita .

All the lines in green are Reporting verbs. That makes clear that it is not mandatory to have a reporting verb at the beginning of the sentence. Its position can be shifted according to the style of writing.

How to recognize a Direct and an Indirect Sentence :-

How to Recognize a Direct Speech:-

  • The reported sentence is locked in the inverted commas.
    • Antima said , “Do you know  Anuj?”
  • After Reporting Verb, we put a comma. 
    • Antima said , “Do you know  Anuj?”
  • The first letter of reported speech that is locked inside the inverted commas ,is  written in  capital letters.
    • Antima said , “Do you know  Anuj?”
How to Recognize an Indirect Speech:-
  • The reported sentence is unlocked from the inverted commas.
    • Ritika said that she was her best friend.
  • Commas are replaced with the conjunctions i.e. ( that/if /whether )according to the expression of the sentences. 
    • Ritika said that she was her best friend.

Common  Rules of changing a Direct Speech into Indirect Speech:-

  • Inverted commas are removed in Reported speech
  • Commas are replaced with conjunctions i.e. ( that/if /whether ) as per the expression of the sentences.
  • Never change the Tense of a Reporting Verb. Only the Tense of Reported Speech is changed if Reported Verb is Past Tense.

eg.

Direct : Namita says to Nisha , “Mishti likes to play chess”

Indirect: Namita tells Nisha that Mishti likes to play chess. •

Direct: Danish said to Salman , “ I Visited Delhi last Monday”

Indirect : Danish told Salman that he had visited Delhi the previous Monday.

General rules of changing a Direct Speech into Indirect Speech:-

I. Common Changes – applied in the complete Indirect Speech

II . Expression Changes – varies according to the different expressions

i.e. Kinds of sentences

They are again sub divided in the following parts-

I . Common Changes – applied in the complete Indirect Speech

a.Change of Tense

b. Change of Pronoun

c. Change of Time and place •

Read and understand the following sentences and the chart before going further in the detailed study of Change of Tense , Pronoun or Time and Space-

How to change Say / said of Reporting Verb according to different kinds

of sentences :-

Sentence Reporting Verb     Reported SpeechConnector
Assertive   Say 
Says
Say to
Says to
Said
Said to
Told 
  say
says
tell
tells
said to
told
( reports / reported) 
    that
InterrogativeSay /Says / Say to/ Says to / Said/Said to   Told     asked/ enquired of    If / whether
ImperativeRequest   Order     Advice   requested ordered /commanded advised      Connector {to}  
  Proposal  Making proposal proposed to / suggested to   
                   ExclamatorySorrow   Happiness SurpriseExclaimed with sorrow   Exclaimed with joy/happiness   Exclaimed with surprise   that  
 OptativeWish Cursewished/blessed cursed    that (In some cases without connectors)
HOW TO CHANGE SAY /SAID

Examples:

Direct

Ankita says, ” Harsh is my brother.

Shikha says to Nisha, ” Ridhima studies with me. “

Akhil said , “ I can not come to meet you here tomorrow.”

Namita said to me , ” Anubhav has been working hard since last night.”

Nitin said me , ” Will you also go to Goa?”

Rishika said to me , ” Do you have my book?”

Dinesh said to Mayank, ” Return me my bike.”

Simran said to me , ” Please, help me in completing my project.”

Siya said me , ” Have a deep sleep for 6 hours a day.

Babita said to me,” Let’s play tennis.”

Akriti said to Divyani , ” Let’s participate in the quiz. “

Gargi said, “Hurrah ! I have won a trophy.”

Shivani said to me ,” Alas! I have met with an accident.”

Aditi said , ” What a beautiful flower it is !”

Garvit said, “May God bless you !”

Vikram said to his friends , ” May you go to hell !”

Indirect

Ankita tells that Harsh is her brother.

Akhil told Nitesh that he could not go to meet him there the next day.

Shikha tells Nisha that Ridhima studies with her.

Akhil said that he could not meet him there the previous day.

Namita told me that Anubhav had been working hard since last night.

Nitin asked me if I would also go to Goa.

Rishika enquired of me if I had her book.

Dinesh ordered Mayank to return his bike.

Simran requested me to help her in competing her project.

Siya adviced me to have a deep sleep for 6 hours a day.

Babita proposed to me that we should play tennis.

Akriti suggested to Divyani that we must participate in the quiz.

Gargi exclaimed with joy that she had won a trophy.

Shivani exclaimed me with sorrow that she had met with an accident.

Aditi exclaimed with surprise that it was a beautiful flower.

Garvit wished that God might bless me.

Vikram cursed his friend that he might go to hell.

Published by Buds of Wisdom

I am Meena Kumari, PGT(English)+ B.ed. Teaching is my passion. Love to guide students in Grammar Learning and build up their writing skills.

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