USE OF SHOULD MUST OUGHT TO: MODAL VERBS SHOWING DUTIES/OBLIGATIONS: QUIZ SHOULD : MUST: OUGHT TO: MODALS: PERFECT INFINITIVE MODALS: SHOULD HAVE MUST HAVE OUGHT TO HAVE USES AND DIFFERENCES

Light Advice

You should leave now, it is getting late.

Should I talk to him on this matter?

Possible Advice

You should be at your home right now.

Informal request

Should I leave now?

Should I also join you for the party?

Past of Shall

He asked me if I should meet him after office.

In Place of ‘IF’

Should he had been at my place,

he would not be able to solve this problem.

                                     Or

If he had been at my place,

he would not be able to solve this problem.

Lest + should

( shows worriedness) 

 Walk carefully lest you should fall. (right )

Walk carefully lest you should 

not fall.(wrong )

 

USE OF MUST

Moral duties/obligations

We must always speak the truth.

We must not tell a lie.

You must always help the poor.

Probability of  action

When you are having 99% surety of any action to happen

When I invited him to attend my birthday party,  he got very happy.

He must be excited to join it.

Necessity

We must awake early in the morning to keep ourselves fit and fine.

We must always keep ourselves up to date.

Must we use this word?

Must we really leave for Delhi right now?

Must we really use the marks while moving out of the home?

Prohibition

We must not cross the road when the light turns red.

Fixed Expected /Determination

She thinks like me she must be my friend.

The person taking a round of the school must be the Principal.

USE OF OUGHT TO

High moral duty/obligation

We ought to save our earth.

We ought to respect our motherland.

We ought to respect our parents.

Strong possibility

Kishan said that Nikhil ought to win the race as he had worked very hard.

Smita  said that he ought to leave this place in any condition

She thinks like me she must be my friend.

The person taking a round of the school must be the Principal.

Strong Prohibitions

You ought not to leave your car unlocked.

You ought not to call him at this time.  

Note:  Uses of Modals Auxiliary Verbs are always flexible. So understand the rules thoroughly and tap only the closer ones that are closer.  

 

 

 

What ____I do now?

Correct! Wrong!

______ we not listen to our elders ?

Correct! Wrong!

The preachers _______ follow the spiritual path first then preach others.

Correct! Wrong!

_______ it gets dark, I shall return in the morning.

Correct! Wrong!

Life is changing every moment . We_______ keep ourselves always up to date.

Correct! Wrong!

We ______ not go against our parents.

Correct! Wrong!

Paint carefully lest you ______spoils all your work.

Correct! Wrong!

Sneha asked me if I ______go with her for searching for her lost watch.

Correct! Wrong!

Ananya ___never tell lies.

Correct! Wrong!

_______ we follow his pieces of advise ?

Correct! Wrong!

We ____always respect out National emblems.

Correct! Wrong!

They are looking towards us consistently. They _____ be curios what we are doing.

Correct! Wrong!

You _______not leave the tap open. It is just wastage of water.

Correct! Wrong!

_____ I leave now ?

Correct! Wrong!

He has worked very hard. He ______ win this trophy this year.

Correct! Wrong!

SHOULD HAVE MUST HAVE OUGHT TO HAVE

Should have, Must have, Ought to have are all parts of Perfect Infinitive that show regret of any action that had not been done in the past or a strong possibility of any action based on facts referring to the past. But how they are different from one another let’s understand them one by one with different examples.

USE OF SHOULD HAVE

Should Have is used for showing repentance or regret in a general sense. In short, Should have shows something was the right to do but wasn’t done. Now there has left only regret.

Example:

  • It is no use in crying over spilled milk.I should have worked harder earlier for having a positive result. Now, there is no chance of filling in the form again.
  • I should have paid attention to my studies earlier.  Life never gives us the second chance.

USE OF OUGHT TO HAVE

‘Ought to have’ is also used in a sense of showing repentance or regret but it is used in some stronger sense i.e. ‘ought to’ leaves a deep sense of regret.

  • You ought to have checked all the papers before signing them Now, you have been left with nothing. All the property has been transferred to your younger brother.
 
Besides ‘ought to have ‘ is used in a sense of prohibition or warning also, showing the anger of the speaker, leaving  the listener with a feeling of repentance  
You ought to have asked my permission before using my mobile. I don’t like people touching my mobile.    

USE OF MUST HAVE

‘Must have’ is used in a sense of regret but with facts, figures or proofs.

  • I saw a child crying hardly in the fair. He must have lost his parents.
  • It was our last day in school,  you must have come.
  • The party was nice, you must have attended it.

Here we can notice the possibility of different actions is based on our direct experience, facts, or proof. Someone directly says , “the child crying hard”  then he concludes that his parents must have been lost that is why he is crying. In the same way in examples 2 and 3 ‘last school day’ and ‘attending a party \’ are two direct experiences of the speaker. So the use of ‘must-have’ will be more appropriate. 

REMEMBER

Remember ‘must have’ never  has the same meaning as ‘should have’. We use must have when we talk about a strong possibility based on facts referring to the past.

While ‘should have’ and  ‘must have’ show the regret but don’t have any proof that the work would have been done if they had done/they had not done some work earlier. But here in 

  ‘must have’ we can notice actions and repentance with proof

Exercise 

  1. You _______ have closed the door earlier. All the rainwater has been entered into the home.
  2. You ________ caught him red-handed. He has escaped himself very safely now.
  3. I found my best friend crying. She ______ failed.
  4. I _______ written the answers neatly. I might get good marks.
  5. Jennie is beating his brother hardly. He _____ done something wrong again
  6. Kavya’s money has been stolen from her drawer. She ________locked her drawer.  
  7. Divyam is crying hard. He ______ lost his bike.
  8. Jatin ___________ given his board examinations. He is not getting any good job now.
  9.  I ___________ seen the the papers before signing them. I have lost everything now.

  10. I ______ have gone with you. You have been injured worse. 

 

  1. Must have
  2. Ought to have
  3. Must have
  4. Should have
  5. Must have
  6. Ought to  have
  7. Must have
  8. Should have
  9. Ought to have
  10. Should have
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Published by Buds of Wisdom

I am Meena Kumari, PGT(English)+ B.ed. Teaching is my passion. Love to guide students in Grammar Learning and build up their writing skills.

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